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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
levels of organization
chemical, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
what is homeostasis?
the "constant" environment in the body
how is homeostasis controlled?
negative feedback - the receptor changes in the opposite direction
when is it normal for positive feedback to take place?
pregnancy - causes contractions
superior
inferior
above
beneath
anterior
posterior
in front of
behind
lateral
medial
away from center
towards middle
dorsal
ventral
toward back
toward belly
cephalic
caudal
towards head
towards tail
rostral
toward oral or nasal cavity
proximal
distal
closer to the origin
farther from the origin
superficial
deep
toward the surface
away from surface
arm
forearm
wrist
palm
brachial region
antebrachial
carpal
palmar
thigh
leg
ankle
foot
femoral
crural
talus
pedal
fingers and toes
digital region
trunk
thorax, abdomen, pelvis
how many quadrants and regions is the abdomen divided into?
4 quadrants, 9 regions (tic tac toe)
sagittal
body plane goes through the midline
transverse or horizontal
_________
frontal or coronal
cuts body into front and back
sections through an organ
longitudinal, transverse or cross, oblique
thoracic cavity
-divided by mediastinum
-contains heart, thymus, trachea, esophagus
abdominal cavity
stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys
pelvic cavity
urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, reproductive organs
serous membranes
cover the organs of the trunk cavities and line the cavities
visceral serous membrane
inside, covers the organ
parietal serous membrane
outer part of the "balloon"
pericardial cavity
surrounds the heart
pleura - pleural cavity
surrounds the lungs
peritoneum
located in the abdominopelvic cavity
mesentery
serous membranes fused together and anchoring some internal organs
retroperitoneal organs
kidneys, pancreas, urinary bladder - lie outside peritoneum
elements
the simplest type of matter retaining chemical properties
atoms
smallest unit of elements
what is found in the nucleus of an atom?
protons, neutrons, electrons
ionic bond
strength depends on atoms, strong bond, one atom steals electrons
covalent bond
strong, electrons are shared, polar or nonpolar
intramolecular bonds
bonds within molecules (ionic or covalent)
intermolecular bonds
bonds between molecules (hydrogen bond)
hydrogen bonds
between molecules, typical for molecules with hydrogen in them
chemical reactions
rearrangement of atoms in molecules
synthesis, decomp, exchange, redox
synthesis
A+B --> AB
decomposition
AB --> A+B
exchange or displacement
AB+C --> AC+B
oxidation-reduction (redox)
one atom loses electron - oxidation
one atom gains electron - reduction
LEO the lion says GER
which has more potential energy? ATP or ADP?
ATP
what does the speed of a reaction depend on?
activation energy determined by enzyme catalyst. lower activation energy = faster reaction.
what are some unique properties of water?
good solvent, high specific heat, ice has lower density than liquid water
acids
lower pH, donate H+ ions, more H+ ions
bases
higher pH, accept H+ ions, less H+ ions
what does pH measure?
H+ ion concentration
organic compunds
contain C and H always, sometimes O and N
carbohydrates (sugars)
monosacharides (glucose)
disacharides (sucrose)
polysacharides (glycogen, cellulose, starch)

high O:C ratio
lipids (fats)
low ratio of O:C
long carbon chains with hydrogens
doubles bonds between carbons
phospholipids, steriods (cholesterol), triglicerides
what are the building blocks of proteins?
amino acids (amine group and carboxyl group)
what type of bond connects amino acids to form a protein?
peptide bond
how many amino acids are there?
20 amino acids
protein structure
primary: amino acids
secondary: alpha helix or beta pleated cheat
tertiary: winding, coil, large 3D structures
quaternary: several proteins
what are enzymes?
proteins that catalyze certain reactions
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
made of nucleotides: sugar, nitrogen base (A, C, T, G), and phosphate group
complementary strands
long and stable
RNA
single strand
A, U, C, G
can be destroyed
ATP
adenosine triphosphate
form of energy and a neuortransmitter