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21 Cards in this Set

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endoderm
innermost of 3 germ cell layers- forms most of the lining of tubular structures of the body
ectoderm
outer germ layer-
derivatives--> skin and the nervous system
mesoderm
layer btwn the endoderm and the ectoderm

derivatives--> muscles and connective tissues
fascia

collagen
compact layers of connective tissue that form a fibrous membrane, covers structures, supports + separates muscles and organs

the protein that makes up the fibers in connective tissue structures, most prevalent
ligaments

vs.

tendons
thickened connective tissue, holds bone together, bone-bone

thickened dense connective tissue , hold muscle-bone, muscle-muscle
aponeurosis
broad flat tendon
functions of the skeleton
1) support
2) movement
3) protection
4) storage of minerals
5) production of RBCs (red marrow)
6) storage of energy (fat) (yellow marrow)
types of bones
long (femur, tibia, metatarsals)

short bones (carpals, tarsals)

flat bones (ribs, skull, sternum)

irregular bones (vertebrae + os coxae)

sesamoid (patella)
osteocytes
mature bone cells, not active until signal present
osteoclasts

vs.

osteoblasts
break down bone, absorb calcium


build bone


off balance= bone disease

- if body needs calcium, increase osteoclast activity to allow reabsorption of calcium into the bone
ossification
formation of bone
calcification
laying down calcium (can be in heart, joint,vessels) bruises
axial skeleton

vs.

appendicular skeleton
skull, vertebral column, sternum, ribs


appendages, pelvis, collar bone, scapula
The osteon (Haversian system)
how compact bone is made
haversian canal
for passage of blood vessel
lamellae
concentric layers of bone tissue
lacunae
spaces containing osteocytes
canaliculi
connections btwn lacunae
osteoporosis
clast> blast
bones of the foot
tarsal bones (7)
metatarsals (5)
phalanges (14)
= 26 bones
ankle sprains
more common on the lateral side bc there are less ligaments on the lateral side and the fibula helps support the ankle on the medial side