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69 Cards in this Set

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The primary areas of the cerebral cortex are involved in:
Primary Areas- Direct processing of primary sensory or motor information
The Secondary areas of the cerebral cortex are:
Secondary Areas - Association areas and are adjacent to primary areas; they integrate information involved in more complex processing that primary areas
What lobe of the cerebral cortex is involved with motor functioning?
Frontal
Where is the primary motor cortex?
The precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe & the anterior paracentral gyrus (Medial frontal lobe)
Function of the primary motor cortex.
Voluntary control of precise movement (volitional movement)
________is a collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain and the spinal cord
Pyramidal Tract
Pyramidal cells are located in the:
Pyramidal cells are located in the gray mater of the precentral gyrus
The pyramidal tracts control contralateral sides meaning....
Pyramidal Tracts are crossed therefore the pyramidal cells on one side of the brain control the muscles on the opposite side of the body
What is the homunculus?
The Homunculus describes a map of the entire body spacially represented on the Precentral and the Paracentral gyrus. Each pyramidal cell directs a particular group of muscles. Disproportionate areas that need more motor control are larger and have more pyramidal cells
The Premotor Cortex sends impulses to the motor cortex and is important in learning _________ & __________
The Premotor Cortex sends impulses to the motor cortex and is important in learning MOTOR SKILLS & PLANNING
This area is anterior and inferior to the precentral gyrus and is a motor area for tongue lips and throat, and are thus involved with speech and preparation to speech.
Broca's area
Since Broca's area isn't bilateral then which side of the brain is it most commonly found?
Left
Which Lobes are the Sensory Areas?
Parietal, Temporal, & Occipital
Pyramidal cells cross in the lower brain stem, what is the area called where they cross?
Pyramidal Decussation
Broadmann's numbers to identify specific areas of ___________.
Functionality
The primary somatosensory area is responcible for recieving sensory information involving:
Touch, temperature, and pain
The primary somatosensory area is located....
on the post central gyrus & posterior paracentral
TRUE or FALSE: The Primary Somatosensory Area is very different than the Pyramidal tracts in that it controls the same side of the body.
False: Both the Primary Somatosensory Area and the Pyramidal Tracts cross and control contralateral sides.
This area is the area that understands and integrates sensory information from the Primary Somatosensory Area.
Somatosensory association areas
The somatosensory association area is located:
Posterior to the postcentral gyrus
Which lobe is the Visual Area on?
Medial aspect of the occipital Lobe
True or False: The right side of the Visual field projects to the left side of the visual area
True
The visual association areas interpret areas and are located:
On either side of the Visual Area
The primary auditory area is located:
Superior posterior portion of the temporal lobe, inside the lateral sulcus. And on both sides of the brain (bilateral)
Where is the auditory association area in relation to the auditory area?
The auditory association area is posterior to the auditory area.
What is the Wernicke's area involved with? and what side of the brain is it typically found?
Speech; Left side of the brain
The Olfactory Cortex is located in a special area called the Ulcus where is the Ulcus?
The Ulcus is part of the inferior frontal lobe
TRUE or FALSE: The gustatory (taste) area is part of the post central gyrus
True
What is an association area?
An association area analyzes, recognizes and acts on sensory input in light of past experiences
The prefrontal cortex association area is involved with:
Learning skills, judgment, reasoning and personality
The prefrontal cortex association area is located:
On the anterior portion of the frontal lobe
Where is the general interpretation area located?
The temporal parietal and occipital lobes
What does the General interpretation area do?
Integrates information
What are the language areas?
Wernicke's & Broca's area
TRUE or FALSE: The visceral association area is outside the lateral sulcus (insula)
FALSE: The Visceral association area is INSIDE the lateral sulcus (insula)
Which hemisphere is dominant for language?
Left
Which Hemisphere is typically involved with spacial perception, artist, emotion and musical skills?
Right Hemisphere
Where Hemisphere is typically involved with Language, Logic and Math?
Left Hemisphere
___________is responsible for communication between cerebral areas, the cerebral cortex and the lower CNS
White Matter
Where is white matter in relation to gray matter?
White Matter is deep to gray matter
Is white matter made up of myelinated or unmyelinated fibers?
Myelinated
What fibers communicate between lobes?
Association Fibers
What fibers communicate between two hemispheres?
Commisural Fibers
Communication between the lower and higher areas of the CNS & spinal cord is with ____________fibers.
Projection Fibers
What are Basal Nuclei (Ganglia)?
Basal Nuclei are a deep group of nuclei in the cerebral cortex that influence MOTOR FUNCTION. (and is deep to the white matter)
What are three parts of the Basal Nuclei (Ganglia)?
The Caudate Nucleus
Putamen &
Globus Pallidus
The Diencephalon is also called:
The Central Core of the Brain
The Diencephalon is made up of:
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Epithalamus
Subthalamus
What are some of the many functions of the hypothalamus?
-Controls Autonomic Control

-Emotion/Limbic System

-Temperature Regulation

-Food Intake (controls desire to eat or not)

-Water Balance - nuclei increase or decrease retention of fluids

-Endocrine System - synthesizes Oxytocin & vasopressin and links to the pituitary gland which releases hormones throughout our body

-Sleep-wake cycles
The Thalamus relays all sensory information except that of ____________.
Olfaction
This part of the diencephalon contains the pineal gland and it influences sleep/wake cycle and puberty.
Epithalamus
This part of the Diencephalon is involved with motor function and is part of the basal Nuclei/Ganglia.
Subthalamus
What connects the Spinal Cord to the Cerebrum?
The Brain Stem
What makes up the Brain Stem?
Midbrain, Pons and Medulla Oblongata
The Superior and Inferior Colliculi are in what part of the Brain Stem?
Midbrain
What Nerves are associated with the Midbrain?
Crainial Nerves III & IV
(Oculomotor, and Trochlear)
TRUE or FALSE: The Superior Colliculi provide the Auditory Pathway.
False The Superior Colliculi- Visual Pathway
What Nerves are associated with the pons?
Cranial nerves V-VIII

5. Trigeminal
6. Abducens
7. Fascial
8. Vestibulocochlear
What is the part of the pons that controls respiration called?
Pneumotaxic Center
The Superior and Inferior Colliculi collectively are called _____________.
The Superior and Inferior Colliculi collectively are called CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA.
What Nerves are associated with the Medula Oblongata?
Cranial Nerves IX-XII

9. Glossopharyngeal
10.Vagus
11. Spinal Accessory
12. Hypoglossal
What are some of the important physiological centers of the Medulla Oblongata?
Cardiac, Vasomotor (Blood Pressure), Respiratory

and.... vomiting, swallowing, coughing, & sneezing
What are the purposes of the Cerebellum? and how are these purposes accomplished?
Motor Coordination, Equilibrium & Proprioception and is accomplished because the cerebral cortex connects with the basal ganglia.
What are some of the group of structures that make up the Limbic System?
-Cingular Gyrus
-Setal Nuclei
-Dentate Gyrus
-Parahippocampal Gyrus
-Hypothalymus
-Amydala
-Olfactory System
What is our Emotional Brain?
Limbic System
What are some functions of the Limbic System?
Behavior, memory, feeding, mating & learning
TRUE or FALSE: The Limbic System is a Functional area and not an anatomical area
True
_________is a scattered are Nuclei throughout the brain stem that keeps us alert
Reticular Activating System
TRUE or FALSE: The Reticular Activating System works to dampen our sensory input so we are able to focus on what is/isn't important in our surrounding environment.
True