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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
how do you expose the thoracic portion of IVC?
must cut open pericardium b/c the thoracic portion of IVC lies within pericardium
where is the pericardial cavity?
lies b/w visceral and parietal layer of serous pericardium
posterior surface (base) of the heart consists of what part of the heart?
LA

(the "base" and "apex" of the heart contain the LEFT chambers of the heart:
-base consists of LA
-apex consists of LV)
apex of the heart consists of what part of the heart?
LV

the "base" and "apex" of the heart contain the LEFT chambers of the heart:
-base consists of LA
-apex consists of LV)
sternal surface of heart consists of what part of the heart?
RV
diaphragmatic surface of heart consists of what part of the heart?
LV (LV is most inferior part of heart, thus near the diaphragm)
base of heart refers to which surface of heart
posterior surface (where LA is)
right border of heart consists of which structures?
RA
SVC
left border of heart consists of which structures?
LA
LV
AA (Aortic Arch)
Pulm trunk
inferior border of heart consists of which structures?
RV
superior border of heart consists of which structures?
Ao
Pulm trunk
SVC
what supplies the LA and LV?
branches of LCA
what structures do the RCA and/or its branches supply?
RA
RV
SA node
AV node
posterior interventricular septum (if right-dominant heart, 80% of time)
what structures do the LCA and/or its branches supply?
LA
LV
ant interventricular septum
which vein drains the LAD?
great cardiac vein==>coronary sinus
which vein drains posterior descending (post interventricular) artery?
middle cardiac vein==>coronary sinus
which vein drains the right marginal artery?
small cardiac vein==>coronary sinus
anterior cardiac veins
-where begin?
-where drain to?
-begin in ant wall of LV
-drain into LA
smallest cardiac veins
-where begin?
-where drain to?
-begin in wall of heart
-drain to nearest cardiac chamber
what should you remember during adrenalectomy?
You must ligate the suprarenal (adrenal) vein ASAP in order to prevent release of catecholamines (from adrenal medulla) into circulation

Recall that:
-left adrenal vein drains to left renal vein before draining to IVC
-rt right adrenal vein drains directly to IVC
embryologic origin of pheochromocytoma?
neural crest origin
embryologic origin of neuroblastoma?
neural crest origin
what forms the portal vein?

where does it originate
union of splenic V and SMV,
posterior to neck of pancreas
what is a "portal" system
the term "portal" refers to a vein interposed b/w 2 capillary beds,

i.e. portal venous system:
capillaries of GI tract
==>portal V
==>capillaries of haptic sinusoids
at what vertebral level is SMA?
L1
at what vertebral level is IMA?
L3
sudden onset of severe, central abdominal pain that may radiate to the back

-what is it
-who is at risk
-abdominal Aortic aneurysm
-elderly men w/atherosclerosis
are at risk
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm:

-MC site?
-how Tx?
-complications of Tx
-MC site=below renal A's in left posterolateral wall (retroperitonea)
-Tx: Immediate transabdominal surgery in order to compress Ao (above celiac trunk) against vertebral bodies

Risks:
-left renal vein put in jeopardy
-ischemic colitis d/t ligation of IMA (IMA lies in center of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm)
-Spinal cor4d ischemia (d/t ligation of great radicular artery)
azygous vein
-desc
-why imp
-ascends on right side of verebral column, drains blood from IVC==>SVC

-important b/c provides collateral circulation if IVC blocked (i.e. blocked d/t malignant retroperitoneal tumor or large blood clot (thrombus))

collateral circulation:
azygous==>SBC==>RA (bypassing IVC, which is blocked)
right-sided hydronephrosis in woman suggests
*thrombosis of right ovarian vein

-right ureter runs underneath the right ovarian vein ("water under the bridge") in order to drain directly into IVC [vs. left ovarian vein, which drains into the left renal V (not directly into IVC, so left ovarian vein does not pass over left ureter)]

-so if thrombosis occludes the right ovarian vein
==>blocks the right ureter (since the right ureter is just below the right ovarian vein)
==>right hydronephrosis

Since IVC is blocked, collateral circulation arises:

1. azygous==>SBC==>RA (bypassing IVC, which is blocked)

2. lumbar veins
==>ext and int vertebral venous plexuses
==>cranial dural sinuses
==>IJV
==>RA
left testicular varicocele suggests
malignant left kidney tumor blocking the left renal vein
==>blocks left testicular vein
(b/c on left side: left testicular/ovarian vein drains into left renal vein [vs. right side: right testicular/ovarian vein drains directly into IVC]
Since IVC is blocked, collateral circulation arises:

1. azygous==>SBC==>RA (bypassing IVC, which is blocked)

2. lumbar veins
==>ext and int vertebral venous plexuses
==>cranial dural sinuses
==>IJV
==>RA
-what can block the IVC?

-collateral circulation?
-IVC can be blocked by

*large blood clot (thrombus),
i.e. in right ovarian vein, which drains directly into IVC
==>blocks IVC

*malignant tumor of left kidney
==>blocks left renal vein
==>blocks left testicular vein (since on the left, testicular vein drains into renal vein)
==>left varicocele

Since IVC is blocked, collateral circulation arises:

1. azygous==>SBC==>RA (bypassing IVC, which is blocked)

2. lumbar veins
==>ext and int vertebral venous plexuses
==>cranial dural sinuses
==>IJV
==>RA