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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
at which chamber is the apex of the heart?
left ventricle
which chamber of the heart is the most anterior? The most posterior?
right ventricle; left atrium
what is another name for the anterior surface of the heart? Which is the chamber that is the primary constituent of this surface? This surface lies directly posterior to which two stuctures?
sternocostal; right ventricle; sternum and costal cartilage
what is another name for the posterior surface of the heart?
base of the heart
which chambers compose the posterior surface of the heart? Which vessels are involved in this surface?
left atrium and part of right atrium; superior and inferior vena cavae
which chamber composes the right (pulmonary) surface of the heart? With which organ is this surface in contact?
right atrium; right lung
which chamber composes the left (pulmonary) surface of the heart? With which organ is this surface in contact?
left ventricle and left auricle; left lung
which chamber composes the inferior surface of the heart? With with structure is this surface in contact?
left and right ventricles; diaphragm
what are the constituents of the right border of the heart?
superior vena cava, right atrium, inferior vena cava
what are the constituents of the left border of the heart?
aortic arch, pulmonary trunk, left auricle, and left ventricle
what are the constituents of the inferior border of the heart?
right ventricle and left ventricle (apex)
what are the functions of the left and right auricles of the heart?
they have no function -- they are left over from primitive atria during development
what is the name for the septum between the two atria? Between the two ventricles?
interatrial septum; interventricular septum
what are the two parts of the interventricular septum?
muscular and membranous parts
what are the 3 sources of blood which dump into the right atrium?
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus
what is the crista terminalis? In which chamber of the heart is it found?
ridge that separates the smooth part of the atrium from the rough part; right atrium
from what is the smooth part of the right atrium derived?
sinus venosus
what are the pectinate muscles?
comb-like muscular ridges on the rough part of the right atrium
what is the fossa ovalis? In which chamber is it found?
circular depression on the interatrial septum that is a remnant of the foramen ovale; right atrium
the tricuspid valve lies between which two chambers of the heart?
right atrium and right ventricle
by which 'strings' is the tricuspid valve anchored? To which muscle is the valve anchored?
chordae tendinae; papillary muscles in right ventricle
what is the name for the muscular bundles on the wall of the right ventricle?
trabeculae carnae
what is the role of the papillary muscles?
hold the tricuspid valve in a closed position when the ventricle contracts (preventing the valve cusps from flapping back into the atria)
do the papillary muscles contract to open or close the tricuspid valve?
what is another name for the moderator band? What is the function of this band?
septomarginal trabecula; contains conductive tissue that connects the interventricular septum, anterior papillary muscle, and anterior wall of the right ventricle
what is the conus arteriosus? What is another name for this?
the smooth outflow tract of the ventricle leading up to the pulmonary valve; infundibulum
how many cusps are present in the pulmonary valve? Which two features line either side of the valve?
3; conus arteriosus and pulmonary trunk
which portion of the left atrium do the pectinate muscles line?
left auricle (NOT ATRIUM)
in which chamber of heart is valve of foramen ovale found? Of what is this a remnant?
left atrium; initial interatrial septum
between which two chambers is the bicuspid (mitral) valve found?
left atrium and ventricle
what is the name for the muscle in the wall of the left ventricle which is in muscular bundles?
trabeculae carnae
how many cusps are present in the aortic valve?
3 cusps
when the right and left ventricles contract, what other feature in the ventricles contract?
papillary muscles
how does the aortic valve close??
when the LV relaxes, blood on its way up the aortic arch falls back down and collects in the sinuses of the aortic valve which closes the valve
which cells of the heart are resposible for initiating the depolarization of the heart for contraction?
SA node
where in the heart is the SA node located?
anterior part of junction between RA and SVC
from where does the AV node receive the impulse for contraction? Where is the AV node located?
atria; interatrial septum near opening of coronary sinus and tricuspid valve
what is the name for the collection of cells that transmits the impulse of contraction from the AV nodes to the ventricles? In which part of the interventriclular septum is it found? Does it branch?
AV bundle; membranous; yes, 2 branches (one for each ventricle)
what are the names for the terminal branches of the R and L bundle branches which form a plexus in the ventricular wall to spread the impulse? In which part of the ventricle wall are these branches found?
Purkinje fibers; between endocardium and myocardium
normally, the SA and AV nodes of the heart are supplied blood by which artery? Which 2 branches?
right coronary artery; SA nodal artery and AV nodal artery
normally, the AV bundle branches are supplied by which artery? Which branch?
left coronary artery; anterior interventricular artery
if the conduction tissue of the heart is deprived of blood, a 'heart block' may occur. What is the clinical significance of this?
ventricles and atria beating out of sync
which two types of neurons supply the heart?
which nerves provide sympathetic motor innervation of the heart? Parasympathetic?
cardiac nerves; cardiac branches of the vagus nerve
preganglionic sympathetic neurons which supply the heart have their cell bodies where?
in the lateral horn of the upper thoracic levels of the spinal cord
sympathetic nerves leave the spinal cord via which horn? How do they reach the sympathetic chain?
ventral root; via the white communicans
once in the chain, the sympathetic nerves from T1-T5 synapse with which ganglia?
cervical sympathetic ganglia or upper thoracic sympathetic ganglia
why do some of the sympathetic nerves which innervate the heart synapse in the cervical sympathetic ganglia?
because the heart was more superior in development than it is in an adult
what is the name for neurons that leave the sympathetic chain and provide motor innervation for the heart? What impact do these nerves have on the heart?
cardiac nerves; increase heart rate, increase strength of contraction, dilate coronary arteries
preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the vagus nerve have their cell bodies where? From there, where do they go to reach the heart?
brainstem; cardiac plexuses
cell bodies of the postganglionic neurons for parasympathetic nerves are located where? Which synapse occurs here?
in ganglia in cardiac plexuses on wall of heart; preganglionic and postganglionic fibers
cardiac branches of the vagus nerve do what to the heart?
decrease the heart rate and constrict the coronary arteries
pain fibers traveling from the heart are which kind of neurons? They travel back to the CNS with which other neurons?
GVA; sympathetic cardiac nerves
the pain fibers from the heart enter which horn of the spinal cord?
dorsal horn (sensory)
pain from the heart is oftern referred to which region of the body? Why is this so?
skin of the chest and left arm
reflex fibers from the heart generally travel back to the CNS with whicn neurons? What do they sense?
cardiac branches of vagus nerve; changes in blood pressure an chemical content of blood