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142 Cards in this Set

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The concious awareness of a stimuli received by sensory receptors.
Sensation (perception)
What are the 3 steps to sensation?
A- Stimuli originating in and out of the body must be detected by sensory receptors and converted into action potentials.
B)W/in the CNS, nerve tracts convey action potentials to the cerebral cortex and other areas of the CNS.
C) Action potentials reaching the cerebral cortex must be translated so the person can be aware of the stimulus.
What are the 2 types of senses?
A- General senses
B- Special senses
General senses consist of which two senses?
A- Somatic senses
B- Visceral senses
General senses are...
Distributed over a large part of the body. Stimulus generates a receptor potentials which triggers an action potentials which travels to the brain.
The neurons involved with general senses are called what?
Primary receptors
Somatic senses tell you information about what?
the body and the environment (touch, pressure, temperature, proprioception, and pain).
Viscerals senses tell you information about what?
internal organs (pain and pressure).
Smell, taste, sight, hearing, and balance are all what type of sense?
Special sense
What are the 5 types of receptors based on function?
mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors,thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, and nociceptors.
Mechanoreceptors respond to what types of stimuli?
(mechanical stimulus) aka compression, bending, and stretching of cells. Touch, pressure, proprioception, and pain.
Chemoreceptors respond to what types of stimuli?
they respond to chemicals which become attached to receptors on their membrane. Smell and taste depend on these.
Thermoreceptors respond to what types of stimuli?
These respond to changes in temperature at the site of the receptor.
Photoreceptors respond to what types of stimuli?
These respond to light which strikes the receptor. Vision depends on these receptors.
Nociceptors respond to what types of stimuli?
These are pain receptors ("No!") These respond to painful mechanical, chemical, or thermal stimuli.
What are the 3 types of receptors based on location?
Exteroreceptors, visceroreceptors, and proprioceptors.
Exteroreceptors are associated with what?
The skin
Visceroreceptors are associated with what?
Organs
Proprioceptors are associated with what?
Joints and tendons
What are the 6 types of sensory nerve endings in skin?
Free nerve endings, Merkel's (tactile) disks, hair follicle receptors, pacinian corpuscles, meissner's (tactile) corpuscles, Ruffini's end organ.
what's the most common and simplest sensory receptor?
Free nerve endings
Visceroreceptor are what type of sensory nerve ending?
Free nerve endings
What type of sensory nerve endings are responsible for temperature sensation?
Free nerve endings
Cold pain begins at what temperature?
below 15C
Cold sensation occurs at what temperature range?
10-40 C (peak 25C aka room temperature)
Warm pain begins at what temperature?
above 45 C
Warm sensation occurs at what temperature range?
30-50 C (peak at 45C)
What type of sensory nerve ending does the following describe: End as flattened expansions associated with epithelial cells. Basal layers of epidermis. Associated with dome-shaped mounds of thickened epidermis in hairy skin. Respond to light touch and superficial pressure.
Merkel's (tactile) disks
What type of sensory nerve ending does the following describe: hair end organs, respond to slight bending of hair as occurs in light touch. End organ receptor fields overlap; sensation not very localized, yet very sensitive.
Hair follicle receptors
What are the 3 types of receptors based on location?
Exteroreceptors, visceroreceptors, and proprioceptors.
Exteroreceptors are associated with what?
The skin
Visceroreceptors are associated with what?
Organs
Proprioceptors are associated with what?
Joints and tendons
What are the 6 types of sensory nerve endings in skin?
Free nerve endings, Merkel's (tactile) disks, hair follicle receptors, pacinian corpuscles, meissner's (tactile) corpuscles, Ruffini's end organ.
what's the most common and simplest sensory receptor?
Free nerve endings
Visceroreceptor are what type of sensory nerve ending?
Free nerve endings
What type of sensory nerve endings are responsible for temperature sensation?
Free nerve endings
Cold pain begins at what temperature?
below 15C
Cold sensation occurs at what temperature range?
10-40 C (peak 25C aka room temperature)
Warm pain begins at what temperature?
above 45 C
Warm sensation occurs at what temperature range?
30-50 C (peak at 45C)
What type of sensory nerve ending does the following describe: End as flattened expansions associated with epithelial cells. Basal layers of epidermis. Associated with dome-shaped mounds of thickened epidermis in hairy skin. Respond to light touch and superficial pressure.
Merkel's (tactile) disks
What type of sensory nerve ending does the following describe: hair end organs, respond to slight bending of hair as occurs in light touch. End organ receptor fields overlap; sensation not very localized, yet very sensitive.
Hair follicle receptors
The concious awareness of a stimuli received by sensory receptors.
Sensation (perception)
What are the 3 steps to sensation?
A- Stimuli originating in and out of the body must be detected by sensory receptors and converted into action potentials.
B)W/in the CNS, nerve tracts convey action potentials to the cerebral cortex and other areas of the CNS.
C) Action potentials reaching the cerebral cortex must be translated so the person can be aware of the stimulus.
What are the 2 types of senses?
A- General senses
B- Special senses
General senses are consist of which two senses?
A- Somatic senses
B- Visceral senses
General senses are...
Distributed over a large part of the body. Stimulus generates a receptor potentials which triggers an action potentials which travels to the brain.
The neurons involved with general senses are called what?
Primary receptors
Somatic senses tell you information about what?
the body and the environment (touch, pressure, temperature, proprioception, and pain).
Visceral senses tell you information about what?
internal organs (pain and pressure).
Smell, taste, sight, hearing, and balance are all what type of sense?
Special sense
What are the 5 types of receptors based on function?
mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors,thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, and nociceptors.
Mechanoreceptors respond to what types of stimuli?
(mechanical stimulus) aka compression, bending, and stretching of cells. Touch, pressure, proprioception, and pain.
Chemoreceptors respond to what types of stimuli?
they respond to chemicals which become attached to receptors on their membrane. Smell and taste depend on these.
Thermoreceptors respond to what types of stimuli?
These respond to changes in temperature at the site of the receptor.
Photoreceptors respond to what types of stimuli?
These respond to light which strikes the receptor. Vision depends on these receptors.
Nociceptors respond to what types of stimuli?
These are pain receptors ("No!") These respond to painful mechanical, chemical, or thermal stimuli.
What are the 3 types of receptors based on location?
Exteroreceptors, visceroreceptors, and proprioceptors.
Exteroreceptors are associated with what?
The skin
Visceroreceptors are associated with what?
Organs
Proprioceptors are associated with what?
Joints and tendons
What are the 6 types of sensory nerve endings in skin?
Free nerve endings, Merkel's (tactile) disks, hair follicle receptors, pacinian corpuscles, meissner's (tactile) corpuscles, Ruffini's end organ.
what's the most common and simplest sensory receptor?
Free nerve endings
Visceroreceptor are what type of sensory nerve ending?
Free nerve endings
What type of sensory nerve endings are responsible for temperature sensation?
Free nerve endings
Cold pain begins at what temperature?
below 15C
Cold sensation occurs at what temperature range?
10-40 C (peak 25C aka room temperature)
Warm pain begins at what temperature?
above 45 C
Warm sensation occurs at what temperature range?
30-50 C (peak at 45C)
What type of sensory nerve ending does the following describe: End as flattened expansions associated with epithelial cells. Basal layers of epidermis. Associated with dome-shaped mounds of thickened epidermis in hairy skin. Respond to light touch and superficial pressure.
Merkel's (tactile) disks
What type of sensory nerve ending does the following describe: hair end organs, respond to slight bending of hair as occurs in light touch. End organ receptor fields overlap; sensation not very localized, yet very sensitive.
Hair follicle receptors
What type of sensory nerve endings does the following describe: deep dermis or hypodermis, deep cutaneous pressure; vibration, when associated with joints, involved in proprioception.
Pacinian Corpuscles
What type of nerve endings does the following describe: 2- point discrimination in dermal papillae. Ability to detect simultaneous stimulations at 2 points on the skin. Used to determine texture of objects. Numerous and close together on tongue and fingertips.
Meissner's (tactile) carpuscles
What type of sensory nerve endings does the following describe:primarily in the dermis of fingers. Respond to continuous touch or pressure.
Ruffini's End Organ
What is a muscle spindle?
3-10 specialized skeletal muscles wrapped by primary receptor neuron endings. Receptor endings are mechanical sensors.
What provide information about length of muscles and are involved in stretch reflex?
muscle spindles
What is a gogli tendon organ?
Receptor endings are mechanical sensors. Proprioceptors are associated with tendons. They respond to increased tension on a tendon.
A local potential is also called what?
A receptor or generator potential.
A local potential results from what?
Interaction of a sensory receptor with a stimulus.
Axons conduct action potentials in response to receptor potential in primary or secondary receptors?
Primary
Is it primary or secondary receptors that cause a release of neurotransmitters that bind to receptors on a neuron causing a receptor potential. smell,taste, hearing, and balance.
secondary
What is a property that all neurons/ receptors share?
Accomodation aka adaptation
What are the receptors that are responsible for providing information about the position and the rate of the movement of body parts, the weight of an object being held in in the hand, and the range of movement of a joint?
Proprioceptors
Proprioceptors can either be slow to adapt or can be quickly adapting. The slow adapting receptors are called? The fast adapting receptors are called?
tonic. phasic.
What are the 5 sensory areas of the cerebral cortex?
sensory, taste area, olfactory cortex, primary auditory cortex, visual cortex.
What 3 components make up the sensory area of the the cerebral cortex?
The primary somatic sensory cortex (posterior to the central sulcus. Postcentral gyrus), general sensory input (pain,pressure, temperature), and the somatic sensory cortex (homunculus)
Where is the taste area of the cerebral cortex located?
Inferior end of the postcentral gyrus.
Where is the olfactory cortex of the cerebral cortex located?
Inferior surface of the frontal lobe.
Where in the primary auditory cortex of the cerebral cortex located?
superior part of the temporal lobe.
Where is the visual cortex of the cerebral cortex located?
Occipital lobe
What are the three components of sensory processing?
Somatic sensory (posterior to primary somatic sensory cortex), visual association (anterior to visual cortex: present visual information compared to past info), and the size of various regions is related to the number of sensory receptors in that area of the body.
What is the motor system responsible for?
maintaining posture and balance; moving limbs, trunk, head, and eyes; facial expression, speech.
What are reflexes?
Movements that occur w/out concious thought.
What are voluntary movments?
Conciously activated to achieve a specific goal.
Where does the inititation of most voluntary movement begin?
the premotor areas of the cerebral cortex. It results in the stimulation of upper motor neurons.
What form the descending nerve tracts?
The axons of upper motor neurons. They stimulate lower motor neurons which stimulate skeletal muscles to contract.
The cerebral cortex interacts with what two things in the planning, coordination, and executions of movement.
basal nuclei and cerebellum
What are the 4 Motor areas of the cerebral cortex?
Precentral gyrus(primary motor cortex, primary motor area), premotor area, prefrontal area, and topography of the primary motor cortex.
Where is the promoter area located?
Anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Where are motor functions organized before initiation?
Premotor area
Which motor area of the cerebral cortex is responsible for motivation, foresight to plan and initiate movements, emotional behavior, mood.
Prefrontal area
Motor nerve tracts consist of what two pathways?
A- Direct Pathways (pyramidal system)
B- Indirect Pathways (extrapyrimidal system)
Which pathway is responsible for maintaining muscle tone and controlling speed and precision of skilled movements?
Direct Pathways
Which pathway is responsible for controlling less precise movements?
Indirect Pathways
In which pathway does direct synapse of upper motor neurons of the cerebral cortex with lower motor neurons in the brainstem or spinal cord occur?
Direct Pathways
Which Pathways control conscious and subconscious muscle movements in the trunk and proximal limbs?
Indirect Pathways
What four things are the basal nuclei responsible for?
A-planning,organizing, coordinating movments and posture.
B- Feedback loops among basal nuclei, thalamus, and cerebral cortex.
C-Simulatory: facilitate muscle activity like rising from a chair.
D- Inhibitory: inhibit activity in antagonistic muscles.
Which part of the brain helps to maintain muscle tone in postural muscles, helps control balance during movement, and coordinates eye movments?
Cerebellum
Action potentials from the cerebral cortex inform what part of the brain of an intended movement?
Cerebellum
Proprioceptive signals from the skeletal muscles and joints to the cerebellum convey what type of information?
Information concerning the status of the muscles and structure being moved during contraction.
The cerebellum compares info from the motor cortex to the proprioceptive info from what?
skeletal muscles and joints
Action potentials form the cerebellum to the spinal cord modify the stimulation from where to where?
motor cortex to the lower motor neurons.
What types of pathways pass through the brainstem?
Ascending and descending pathways.
Nuclei of which cranial nerves are located in the brainstem?
2-12. Olfactory is the only one not represented.
What types of reflexes are located in the brainstem?
heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, sleep, swallowing, coughing, vomiting, and sneezing.
What controls the sleep/wake cycle?
Reticular Activating system (RAS)
From what does RAS receive input?
Cranial nerve II (optic), VIII (vestibulocochlear), ascending tactile sensory pathways, and descending neurons from the cerebral cortex.
The speech area is located where?
in left cerebral cortex.
Which speech area permits you to understand what is heard or seen if written and thinking what one will say.
Wernicke's area
Which area is concerned with sending messages to the appropriate muscles to actually make the sounds?
Broca's area
Where is sound heard first before the information travels to Wernicke's area?
Primary association area
What term describes absent or defective speech or language comprehension.
Aphasia
Aphasia is caused by what?
Lesion somewhere in the auditory/speech pathway.
What does the right cerebral cortex control?
muscular activity and receives sesory info from the left side of the body.
What does the left cerebral cortex control?
muscular activity in and receives info from the right side of the body.
Sensory info from both hemispheres is shared through what?
commissures: corpus collosum
What is not shared equally between the left and right cerebral cortex?
language and possibly other functions like artistic activities.
Mathematics and speech are in which hemisphere?
left
3-dimensional spacial perception, recognition of faces, and musical ability are in which hemisphere?
right
What does an EEG/ electrocephalogram record?
A brain's electrical activity. Electrodes sense the summation of all action potentials occuring at a particular moment.
When are alpha waves present?
during the resting state with eyes closed.
When are beta waves present?
During intense mental activity.
When are theta waves present?
Occur in children, but also in adults with degenerative brain disorders.
When are delta waves present?
Occur in deep sleep, infancy, and severe brain disorders.
Sleep consists of patterns of what two things?
Rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep.
What are the 4 types of memory?
sensory, short term, implicit, and long term.
What 4 things does the limbic system influence?
emotions, visceral responses to emotions, mood, and sensations of pain and pleasure.
Our basic survival instincts are located in which system?
limbic system.
What are pheromones?
molecules released by one organism that have an effect on another organism.
Cingulate gyrus (part of limbic system) is?
the satisfaction center; it surrounds the corpus callosum.
What are some of the effects of aging on the nervous system?
Gradual decline in sensory and motor function, slower reflexes, decreased size and weight of brain, decreased short-term memory in most people, long term memory usually unaffected, changes in sleep patterns (more stage 1, less stage 4)