Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

372 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
coronal plane
divides the body into anterior and posterior halves
transverse plane
divides the body into superior and inferior halves
sagittal plane
divides the body into left and right halves
offset from the center
towards the middle
away from the middle (towards the outside)
closest to the point of attachment
furthest from the point of attachment
toward the surface
away from the surface
base of the skull
shoulder region
sternum (right down the midline of the chest)
two regions lateral to the sternum (chest area)
vertebral column (right down the back)
upper arm (between the shoulder and the elbow)
point of the elbow
bottom of the arm (forearm)
below pectoral
lower portion of the spine; medial to abdominal
inferior to the lumbar region (in the center)
buttocks (lateral to the sacral region)
back of the knee
calf (lower leg)
neck (base of skull to deltoid)
armpit area
front of elbow
wrist (connects forearm to hand)
inferior to abdominal
groin, inferior and lateral to abdominal
directly inferior to pelvic
front of knee
function of cells throughout the body
covering/lining, protection, storage, movement, defense, attachment, and communication
plasma membrane
the surrounding outer limits of a cell
where DNA is housed in the cell
substance in the cell that contains all other structures
phase of mitosis where the cells are resting and performing their jobs/not dividing
phase of mitosis where all DNA is condensed and packed into chromosomes
phase of mitosis when all chromosomes pair up down the center of the cell (gives the cell a way to equally split in half)
phase of mitosis when the chromosomes are pulled in opposite directions and the pairs split
phase of mitosis where the two chromosomes are all the way at other ends, almost completely apart
phase of mitosis where the cell splits into two separate daughter cells
means cells are not symmetrical
apical surface
top surface of the epithelium
basal surface
bottom surface of the epithelium
functions of epithelia
barrier layer prevents entry or exit of all molecules; secretion of molecules in one direction but not the other, and sensory of external environment
one cell layer thick
more than one cell layer thick
flat cells
square cells
tall cells
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
all cells contact the basement membrane but not all contact the apical surface in this type of epithelium
most superifical layer of the skin; stratified squamous epithelium; most of the superficial layer consists of dead skin cells filled with keratin
merkel cells
cells in the epidermis used for tactile perception (touch receptors)
langerhans cells
cells in the epidermis used for immune response (to recognize pathogens)
cells in the epidermis that secrete melanin (skin pigment)
stratum corneum
strata of the epidermis tha tis the most superficial; contains dead cells filled with keratin
stratum lucidum
strata of the epidermis that is only found in thick skin; looks clear as organelles are lost
stratum granulosum
strata of the epidermis where cells begin to flatten and produce keratin
stratum spinosum
strata of the epidermis where large polygonal cells are not attached to the basement membrane
stratum basale
strata of the epidermis that is the most deep; undergoes mitosis for the continuous supply of new cells
thick skin
has all epidermal strata; found on palms of hands, soles of feet, and tips of fingers and toes; contains thicker stratum corneum relative to thin skin; has extra layers to provide protection against cuts, scrapes and abrasions; only contains sweat glands; majority is stratum corneum
thin skin
contains only four layers (no stratum lucidum); smaller number of cell layers in the stratum corneum relative to thick skin; found covering the majority of body surfaces; may contain hair follicles, nails, and or glands
deep to the epidermis; contains a papillary and a reticular layer; contains blood vessels and nerves
papillary layer
layer of the dermis that contains ridges that interlock with corresponding ridges in the epidermis; thin; increases surface area
reticular layer
layer of the dermis that is thicker than the papillary layer; extensive network of collagen fibers to support tissue and contains elastin fibers to provide elasticity
hypodermis/subcutaneous layer
deep to the skin (not a true part of the skin); connective tissue fibers interwoven with dermis fibers; contains adipocytes; extensive vasculature and nerve tissue
fat cells
accessory structures in the skin that cover and protect distal digits; derived from stratun corneum
epidermis that covers the base of the nail; where growth occurs
epidermis that is the stratum corneum under the free edge of the nail
downy hair that covers the fetus and disappears by birth
hair that replaces manugo; fine hair that covers most of the body except palms and soles
terminal hair
coarse hair that is found on the head, eyebrows, and eyelashes; after puberty, it is also found in the armpit, pubic, and facial regions
hair follicle
a deep invagination of the dermis where hair shaft is found
hair bulb
at the base of hte hair follicle and contains the cells essential for growth and maintenance of hair
arrector pili muscle
muscle in the hair follicle that connects to the dermis; its contraction causes the hair to stand up, forming goose bumps
sebaceous glands
glands in hair that secrete an oily substance into the follicle to coat and protect the hair
functions of hair
protection; heat retention, facial expression, sensory reception, visual identification, and pheromone dispersal
sebaceous glands
glands that secrete oil directly into the hair follicle
merocrine glands
glands that are widely distributed and exit the skin directly; prominent on palms of hands and soles of feet
apocrine glands
glands only in specific locations, usually with terminal hair; secrete watery substances into the follicle
connective tissue
the most abundant and diverse tissue type in the body; all tissues that aren't epithelial, muscular, or nervous tissues are classified as this type
functions of connective tissue
physical protection, support and structure, binding, storage, transport, and protection
loose connective tissue
adipose tissue is an example of this type of connective tissue; has fewer fibers and cells than dense connective tissue; located around and between organs and provides protection and support to underlying tissues
dense connective tissue
regular tissue is an example of this type of connective tissue; cells are fibers are densely packed, so it is more resistant to stress and pressure; it provides strength and flexibility; tendons and ligaments are good examples
fluid connective tissue
blood is a good example of this type of connective tissue; watery consistency that contains many types of cells; helps supply the body with nutrients and removes waste products from tissues; also provides immune cells to all tissues
promote clotting when a vessel breaks to prevent excessive blood loss
spongy bone
bone that is filled with openings
compact bone
bone that is the hard outer surface of the bone; no spaces are visible to the naked eye
hyaline is the best example of this type of connective tissue; no structured fibers are easily visible and teh cells are embedded ina glossy matrix; it provides protection to the end of bones to prevent damage
functions of cartilage
provides support for soft tissues, provides a gliding surface for mvoement, and develops cartilage templates that eventually grow into bones
hyaline cartilage
the most abudant type of cartilage; found in many joints, such as legs, arms, and ribs
provides more support and strength than hyaline cartilage; found in ioints that require more protection from stress and compression (like between vertebrae and knees)
elastic cartilage
contains elastic fibers for flexibility; found in the ear and epiglottis
functions of bones
movement, hemopoeisis, support and protection, and mineral storage
synthesization of blood cells
flat bone
example of this type of bone is the skull
long bone
examples of this type of bone are arms, legs, and fingers
short bone
examples of this type of bone are carpals and tarsals (cubed; as long as they are wide)
irregular bone
example of this type of bone is a vertebra (all bones that don't fit into other categories)
end of a long bone
growth plate in a long bone
shaft/long hollow part of a long bone that contains marrow
medullary/marrow cavity
blood cells are made here int he bone marrow
compose compact bone
central canal
a canal in an osteon in compact bone that houses blood vessels and nerves
concentric lamellae
surrounds the osteon; contains collagen fibers
small holes in the compact bone that hold osteocytes, which maintain the bone
small canals that connect neighboring osteocytes in compact bones
line the outside of hte bone and secrete new bone
mature osteoblasts that are trapped within the bone
large, multinucleate cells that resorb or destroy bone
large, smooth rounded articulating oval structure
small, flat, shallow articulating surfaceq
prominent, round epiphysis
smooth, grooved, pulley-like articular process
deep pit or socket in the maxillae or mandible
flattened or shallow depression
narrow groove
projection adjacent to the condyle
low ridge
any marked bony prominence
angular extension
pointed, slender process
massive, rough projection found only in the femur
small, round projection
large, rough projection
passageway through a bone
narrow, slit-like opening through a bone
rounded passageway through a bone
cavity or hollow space in a bone
characteristics of muscles
excitability/responsiveness, contractility, elasticity, and extensibility
functions of skeletal muscle
movement, maintenance of posture, temperature regulation, storage and movement of materials, and support of underlying tissues
connective tissue that surrounds the muscles
subregions of muscles
connective tissue layer that covers the fascicles
muscle fibers
the cells that make up the muscle
connective tissue layer that surrounds the muscle fibers
compose the muscle fibers
striations in the myofybrils, which are the units of muscle contraction
make up the myofibrils; strands of proteins used for muscle contraction; thin and thick filaments that create the striations of the sarcomere
type of muscles where the fascicles are at an oblique angle to the tendon (feather like, hamstrings and quadriceps)
type of muscle where fascicles are parallel to the tendon (Example is the abdominal muscles)
type of muscles where the fascicles converge at a single point; fan shaped, pectoralis and temporalis muscles
type of muscle where fascicles are in concentric circles, so it looks like there is no beginnings and no end (sphincters, mouth, and eyes)
where the muscle originates, and this point remains stationary during contraction
the bone that makes the movement in response to th emuscle contraction
cardiac muscle
muscle that forms the heart; striated and branched; shorter and thicker than skeletal muscle fibers; involuntary, connected by intercalated discs
intercalated discs
discs that connect the muscle cells of cardiac muscle; made of protein and the plasma membrane of other cells
smooth muscle
muscle found surrounding hollow tissues such as the GI tract and blood vessels, individual cells are spindle shaped, not striated, fibers are short and have a small diameter; involuntary
central nervous system
part of the nervous system that contains the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
part of the nervous system that contains the nerves outside the central nervous system
sensory/afferent division
division of the nervous system that receives sensory inputs and transmits them to the CNS for processing
somatic sensory
componen of the sensory division of the nervous system that receives input from the exernal environment
visceral sensory
component of the sensory division of the nervous system that receives input from the organs and viscera of hte body
motor division (efferent)
this division of hte nervous system transmits the response of the body from sensory inputs to muscles or glands
somatic motor
component of the motor division of hte nervous system that shows voluntary responses through skeletal muscles
autonomic motor
division of the motor division of the nervous system that shows involuntary responses through cardiac and smooth muscles or glands
polarized cells that transmit signals in one direction
process of a neuron that receives input from the environment or other neurons
process of the neuron that tramsmits the signal received by neurons or effectors; there is normally only one but it can have branches, and is normally the largest process of ht eneuron
unipolar neuron
type of neuron that has a single process tha tbranches; largest branch is the axon and smaller branches are dendrites; most sensory neurons
bipolar neuron
type of neuron that has one axon and one dendrite, each may branch; very rare
multipolar neuron
type of neuron that contains a single axon but many dendrites; most common type; motor neurons are multipolar
glial cells
the support cells of the nervous system
most abundant type of glial cells in the CNS; many projections; found int he brain and form the blood brain barrier; control what enters and exits the fluid and provides structure; divide to occupy tne empty space from neuronal death; and secrete chemicals to aid in devleopment and functions of the CNS
ependymal cells
glial cells in the CNS that are a simple cuboidal epithelial layer that line the ventricles of the brain and secrete cerebrospinal fluid
choroid plexus
cells in the ependymal cells that secrete cerebrospinal fluid
glial cells in the CNS that are small in size and number; they contain small proejctions and clean up the CNS by phagocytization
glial cells of the CNS that are large cells with processes that wrap around axons to speed neuronal impulses (myelinate the neurons)
satellite cells
glial cells of hte PNS that surround and protect the cell body in a ganglion
group of neuronal cell bodies
neurolemmocytes/schwann cells
glial cells of the PNS that wrap around the axons and act like the oligodendrocytges in the central nervous system
front region of hte brain
back region of hte brain
four major regions
cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, and branstem
gray matter
matter of hte brain that contains the cell bodies of neurons, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons; darker and more dense, usually on the outside of hte brain
white matter
matter int he brain that contains the myelinated axons of neurons and has a more pale appearance
third ventricle
central ventricle int he brain
fourth ventricle
inferior ventricle in the brain
cerebrospinal fluid
functions int he brain and spinal cord like blood throughout the body; secreted by the choroid plexus; provides buoyancy and cushion for the brain; transports nutrients, signals, and waste products within the CNS
largest of all brain regions; divided into left and right hemispheres; has 5 lobes; responsible for conscious thought processes and original of all complex intelectual functions
longitudinal fissue
left and right hemispheres are divided by this structure in the cerebrum
corpus callosum
halves of the cerebrum are connected by this structure
frontal lobe
lobe of the cerebrum that lies under the frontal bone; most rostral region that is responsible for voluntar motor functions, concentration, and verbal communication; contains the precentral gyrus and premotor cortex
premotor cortex
structurein the frontal lobe responsible for coordinating learned motor activities
parietal lobe
lobe of hte cerebrum that lies iunder the parietal bone; involved in most sensory functions; contains the postcentral gyrus and somatosensory associaiton area
somatosensory association area
responsible for integrating and interpreting sensory experience
temporal lobe
lobe of hte cerebrum that lies under the temporal bone; involved in hearing, interpreting, speech, language, and smell; contains the primary auditory cortex and olfactory cortex
occipital lobe
lobe of hte cerebrum that lies under the occipital bone; processes visual information and stores visual memories
lobe of the cerebrum that is deep to the lateral sulcus on the interior; appears to be involved in memory and taste; contains the gustatory cortex
a group of neuron cell bodies in the CNS
caudate nucleus
nucleus that runs inferior to the lateral ventricles; responsible for motor neuron stimulation
amygdaloid body
nucleus that controls emotions, behavior, and moods
lentiform nucleus
nucleus that controls subconscious muscle movement and thalamic control
nucleus that controls subconscious visual information and is found between the lentiform nucleus and the outer region of hte insula
the diencephalon
contains three regions, the thalamus, epithalamus, and hypothalamus
region of the diencephalon that responds to odors
region of the diencephalon that is the primary site of all sensory input; filters input before relaying to the somatosensory cortex
most anterior and slightly inferior regon of hte diencephalon; that controls the autonomic nervous system, the endocrine system, body temperature, emotional behavior, eating, water/hydration, and the sleep wake cycle
the brainstem
connects the diencephalon and cerebrum to the spinal cord; is a bidirectional passadgeway for neuron projections; has three major regions, the mesencephalon, the pons, and the medulla oblongata
the most superior region of the brainstem; contains visual and auditory reflex centers, helps relay motor output to skeletal muscles, and integrates involuntary muscles
cerebral peduncles
the two broad edges on the anterior border of the mesencephalon
the most posterior region of hte mesencephalon
mesencephalic aqueduct
the aqueduct in the mesencephalon that is continuous with the ventricles of hte brain
part of hte brainstem inferir to the mesencephalon; major site of breathing regulation; posterior edge contains part of hte fourth ventricle
medulla oblongata
part of hte brainstem that is just inferior to the pons; the posterior region contains part of hte fourth ventricle; region of the brain where left and right tracts cross; contains manjy centers that regulat vital functions (Cardiac, vasomotor, respiratory, sneezing, coughing, salivation, swallowing, gagging, vomiting)
part of hte medulla oblongata that contain olivary nuclei
decussation of pyramids
place in the medulla oblongata where the left and right tracts of the brain cross
located posterior to the pons; has left and right hemispheres; the main function is to fine tune motor responses to produce fluid movements; maintains psture and balance by adjusting motor responses
connects the left and right hemispheres of the cerebellum
primary fissure
separates the anterior and posterior lboes of each hemisphere in the cerebellum
olfactory nerve; sensory only (sense of smell); only nerves that regularly regenerate over time
optic nerve; sensory only (Sense of sight/vision); connects to eyes and crosses right down the center of hte brain
occulomotor nerve; motor function in moving the eyes (innervates three rectus muscles and 1 oblique muscle; helps close eyelids and dilate pupils
Trochlear nerve; motor only (innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye); comes out just lateral to the pons
Trigeminal nerve; contains three branches that innervate the face
Opthalmic branch
branch of the trigeminal nerve that has a sensory function to innervate the forehead, eye, and bridge of hte nose
maxillary branch
branch of the trigeminal nerve that has a sensory function to innervate the balls of the cheeks, maxillae, and the rest of hte nose
mandibular branch
branch of the trigeminal nerve that has both sensory and motor functions because it innervates the mandible and the muscles of chewing
abducens nerve; innervates the fourth rectus muscle of hte eye
facial nerve; between the pons and the medulla oblongata; has both sensory and motor functions (Senses taste from the atnerior two thirds of the tongue and innervates the facial muscles for expressions; also innervates glands)
Vestibulocochlear nerve; main cranial nerve responsible for both hearing and balance (sensory only); betweem the pons and medulla; has two branches (vestibular branch-balance and cochlear branch-hearing)
Glossopharyngeal nerve; has both sensory and motor functions to sense taste for the posterior one third of hte tongue and salivation, and motor innervates the pharyngeal muscles to aid in swallowing
vagus nerve; has both sensory and motor functions; extends to all internal organs to sense whats going on inside hte body (visceral sensory information); mtor function to part of hte pharynx and smooth muscles of all internal organs
accessory nerve; on the medulal oblongata; motor only to innervate the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius muscles
hypoglossal nerve; motor only to aid in moving the tongue
spinal cord
divided into five regions; runs through the vertebral foramina of the vertebrae
cauda equina
part of the spinal cord that is inferior ot the coccygeal region and extends to the coccyx
conus medullaris
the end of hte true spinal cord that links to the cauda equina
filum terminale
anchors the spinal cord to the coccygeal vertebrae
spinal cord meninges
layers of connective tissue or spaces surrounding the spinal cord neurons; epidural space, dura mater, subdural space, arachnoid, subarachnoid space and pia mater
gray commissure
connects the two halves of gray matter in the spinal cord
posterior root
region of gray matter int he spinal cord that contains the sensory nuclei
anterior root
region of gray matter in the spinal cord that contains the motor nuclei
posterior root ganglion
ganglion on the posterior root that contains sensory PNS cells
rami communicantes
branches off the anterior ramus and connects to the sympathetic trunk ganglion (contains sympathetic neuron cell bodies)
dermatome map
a map that approximate the area of skin from whch each spinal nerve receives sensory input
lumbar spinal nerves
spinal nerves that receive from the atnerior legs and lower back
spinal nerves that receive from the psoterior legs
spinal nerves that receive from the chest and abdomen
spinal nerves that contain the anterior rami of T1-T12; innervate the intercostal muscles and receive sensory input from the chest walls; T7-T12 also innervate the abdominal muscles and abdominal skin
a group of nerves
cervical plexus
plexus only considered to contain C1-C4 with a minor contribution from C5
number of cervical nerves
number of thoracic nerves
numer of lumbar nerves
number of sacral nerves
number of coccygeal nerves
phrenic nerve
contains axons from C3 - C5 and innervates the diaphragm
brachial plexus
plexus that contains nerves C5 through T1; innervates the arms; nerves from this plexus join tof orm lateral, posterior and medial cords around the scapula; has five main branches
musculocutaneous nerve
nerve that innervaets the upper arm; sensory on the lateral forearm
median nerve
nerve that innervates the atnerior forearm muscles and lateral hand muscles; sensory on the lateral half of palms and backside of hte finger tip
radial nerve
nerve that innervates the posterior forearm and upper arm sensory in the same area
ulnar nerve
nerve that innervates the ulnar side of the arm and is sensory in the pinky and ring fingersq
axillary nerveq
nerve that innervates the shoulder and is sensory in the same region
lumbar plexus
plexus that contains nerves L1 through L5 and has two main branches
femoral nerve
nerve that inntervates the anterior thigh muscles; sensory in the anterior thigh and medial calf
obturator nerveq
nerve that is motor and sensory in the medial thigh muscles
sacral plexus
plexus that contains nerves L4 through S4; has two main branches
tibial nerve
nerve that innervates the posterior muscles of hte thigh and calf; is sensory on the plantar surface of the foot
fibular nerve
nerve that branche sinto superificla and deep branche snear the lateral knee
superficial branch
branch of hte fibular nerve thatinnervates the lateral calf muscles' sensory here and on the dorsal surface of hte foot
deep branch
branch of the fibular nerve that innervates the anterior calf muscles and is sensory between the first and second toes
somatic nervous system
nervous system that is conscious and voluntary;t he motor neuron extends from the spinal cord directly to its effectors, which are skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
nervous system that is unconscious/involuntary; motor nejuron extends from the spinal cord to a second neuron through a ganglion; effectors are smooth and cardiac muscles and glands
parasympathetic division
division of the autonomic nervous system that is rest and digest; maintains homeostasis; does not have cell bodies int he sympathetic trunk ganglion; long first projection and short second projection; minimal or no axon divergence; includes cranila nerve III, VII, IX, and X
sympathetic division
division of the autonomic nervous system that is rfight or flight; has a short first projection and long second projection; extensive axon divergence that allows activation of many systems from a single stimula; cell bodies located in lateral horns of T1-L2
central region of the eye
eye color
white portion of the eye
thin epithelium that covers the sclera of hte eyeq
structure of hte eye that covers the lens and iris
fibrous tunic
tunic of the eye that is the outer layer and contains the cornea and sclera
vscular tunic
tunic of the eye that is the cnetral layer and contains the choroids, cilitary body and iris
dilator pupillae muscle
muscle in the pupil whose fibers project from the outside to the inside of the iris and its contraction makes the pupil larger
sphincter pupillae muscle
muscle in the pipil tha tis a ceoncentric circle and its contraction makes pupil smaller
neural tunic
tunic of the eye that is also called the retina; contains the neurons used to receive light; extensive blood vessels cover the outer layer of the retina
optic disc
the region of hte cornea where th e optic nerve fibers exit the eye; called the blind spot because there is no vision here
fovea centralis
a small depression in the retina that is the area of sharpest vision
more numerous neurons int he neural layer that receive light and focus in low light; have less visual acuity and color clarity
neurons in the neural layer that require intense light for function; are most concentrated in the fovea centralis and are sparse or absent in the anterior portions of the retina; provide color
external ear
part of hte ear that contains the auricle, exernal auditory canal, and tympanic membrane
funnel-like structure of the external ear
tympanic membrane
part of hte external ear that is known as the eardrum; separates the exernal and middle ear
middle ear
part of the ear that contains the auditory ossicles
inner ear
part of the ear that is separated from the middle ear by the oval window; contains structures for hearing and equilibrium reception
the middle ear
the auditory tube connects this part of the ear to the outside via the nost; auditory ossicles are suspended here;
inner ear
this part of the ear is surrounded by the bony labyrinth, that covers the membranous labyrinth, that contains endolymph; has three main regions, the vesstibule, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea
direct rotational movement in the inner ear
spiral organ
1membranous labyrinth in this structure in the cochlea is involved in sound perception
tectorial membrane
vibration of the hair cells are covered by this membrane in the cochlea
carry blood away from the heart
carry blood towards the heart
pulmonary circuit
consists of the cham bers on the right side of the heart as well as the pulmonary arteries and veins; conveys blood to the lungs via pulmonary arteries to reduce carbon dioxide and replenish oxygen levels; return to the left side of the heart
systemic circuit
contains the chambers on the left side of the heart along with all the other named blood vessels; carries blood to all the peripheral organs and tissue sof hte body; blood tha tis high in oxygen is puumped into the aorta, then gas exchange occurs; these veins carry the blood to the superior and inferior vena cavae. which drain blood into the right atrium
the posteriosuperior surface of the heart that is formed primarily by the left atrium
the inferior conical end of the heart
the fluid filled sac surrounding the heart that restricts heart movements os tha tit doesnt bounce and move about and prevents it from overfilling with blood; hast wo main components
fibrous pericardium
the outer portion of hte pericardium that is a dense connective tissue layer
serous pericardium
the inner portion of the pericardium that is a thin double llayered serous membrane that has two layers
parietal layer
layer of the serous pericardium that lines the inner surface of hte fibrous pericardium
visceral layer
layer of hte serous periocardium that covers the outside of the heart
the outermost heart layer and is also known as the visceral layer of the serous pericardium; composed of a serous membrane and aerolar connective tissue
the middle layer of the heart wall that is the actual cardiac muscle; is the thickest
the internal surface of the heart and the external surface of the heart valves; composed of a simple squamous epithelium and a layer of areolar connective tissue
thin walled chambers within the heart located superiorly; the right receives blood from the systemioc circuit and the left receives blood from the pulmonary circuit
the inferior chambers of the heart; the two large arteries, the pulmonary trunk goes in to the right and the aorta goes from the left
superior vena cava
receives blood from the head, neck, upper limbs, and superior regions of the trunk; empties into the right atrium
inferior vena cava
receives blood from the lower limbs and trunk; emptiees into the right atrium
coronary sinus
drains blood from the heart wall and empties into the right atrium
right ventricle
receives deoxygenated venous blood from the right atrium
right atrium
receives venous blood from the systemic circuit
pulmonary semilunar valve
marks the end of the right ventricle and the entrance into the pulmonary trunk
pulmonary trunk
divides shortly into the left and right pulmonary arteries, whcih carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs
systemic circulation
circulation that consist of the blood vessels that extend to and from the body
pulmonary circulation
circulation that consists of blood vessels that extend to and from the lungs for the purpose of gas exchange
become progressively smaller as they divide and are farther from the heart
become progessively larger as they merge and are closer to the heart
tunica interna
tunic of the heart that is composed of endothelium and a subendothelial layer made up of a thin layer of areolar connectie tissue;l is the innermost layer
tunica media
the middle tunic of the blood vessel; composed of circularly arra ged layers of smooth uscles cells and is involutnary; thicker in arteries
tunic externa1
the outermost layer of blood vessel wall; cmoposed of an aerola connective tissue that contains elastic fibersl helps anchor the vessel to other structures; thickest in veins
the smallest blood vessels; tha t connect arterioles to venules; most consists solely of a tunica interna; optimal for diffusion of ghases and nuitrients between blood in the ccapillaries and body tissue
a vessel branch of an arteriole that feeds the capillary beds
the most common t ype of capillaries; have a completely continious lining and are connected by tight junctions; foun din muscle skin and teh thuymus
type of capillary that has holes within each endothelial cell; the basement membrane remins continuous; seen where a great deal of fluid transport between the blood and interstitial fluid occurs (small intestine)
capillaries that have larger gapsl their basement memb rane is either discontinuous or absent; wider larger vesselss with openings that allow for transport of larger materials such as proteins or cells
the smallest veins; companoin vessels with arterioles since both sipply the same areas and are of similar size; merge to form veins
smaller and medium sized veins that typically travel with muscular artiers; while larger veins travel with elastic arties;
function of the lymphatic system
fluid and nutrient transport, lymphocyte development, and immuner esponse
structures in the lymphatic system that transport dietary lipids
any substances abnormal to the body
proteins that bind to and immobilize foreign or abnormal agent, damaging it or identifying it to other elements of hte immune sytem
lymphatic capillaries
found among most blood capillary networks; lacteals are this type; lymp vessels that pick up interstitial fluid and dietary lipids and vitaminsl the lymph of this area is called chyle and it has a milky color
lymphatic vessels
vessels formed from the merging of lymphatic capiullaries; resemble small veins that contain three tunics and valves
afferent vessels
bring lymph to a lymph node, where it is filtered
efferent vessels
lymph exits the lymph node through these vessels once it is filtered
jugular trunks
trunks that drain lymph from the head and neck
subclavian trunks
trunks that drain lymph from the upper limbs, breasts, and superficial thoracic wall
bronchomediastinal trunks
trunks that drain lymph from the deep thoracic structures
intestinal trunks
trunks that drain lymph from the abdominal structures
lumbar trunks
trunks that drain lymph from the lower limbs, abdominopelvic wall, and pelvic organs
lymphatic ducts
ducts that receive lymph from the lymphatic trunks
right lymphatic duct
duct that returns lymph into the junction of the right subclavian and the right internal jugular vein; receives lymph from the lymphatic trunks that drain the right side of the head and neck, right iupper limb, and right side of the thorax
thoracic duct
lymphatic duct that travels superiorly and p-asses through the aortic opening of hte diaphragm, and then ascends to the left of the vertebral body midline; drains lymph into the junction of the elft and right subclavian and the left internal jugular veins
MALT (mucosa associated lymphatic tissue)
lymphatic nodules that are locate din the lamina propria and detect antigens and initiate an immune response
lymphatic nodules
oval clusters of lymphatic cells that are not surrou ded by a connective tissue capsule
germinal center
the center of a lypmhatic nodule that contains b lymphocytes and some macrophages
lymphatic organs
lymphatic cells that are completley surrounded by a connective tissue capsule
bilobed organ that contains t lymphocytes that do not participate in the immuner esponse and are protected from antigens in the body by a well formed blood organ barrier
lymph nodes
small round lymphatic organs that are located alon ght epathways of lymph vessels; primary function is to filter antigens from lymph and initiate an immune response when necessary
lymph nodes found in the breast, axilla, and upper limb
lymph nodes that reveive lymph from the lower limb and pelvis
lymph nodes that receive lyumph from the head and neck
initiates an immune response when antigens foun din blood, serves as a reservoir for blood, kills old blood
white pulp
pulp associated with the arterial supply of the spleen
red pulp
pulp associated wtih the venous supply of the spleen
proximal convoluted tubule
oringinates at the tubular poile of the renal corpuscle and is lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium; cells actively reabsorb almost all ntrueitsn, electrolytes, and any plasma proteins fcrom the tubular fluid; solutes and water are returned ot the vascular system via the peritubular capillaries
nephron loop
facilitate the reabsorption of water and solutes frmo the tubular fluid
distal convoluted tubule
oringinates int he renal cortex; secrete ions sucn as potassium and acid into the tubular fluidl reabsorbs water