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38 Cards in this Set

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Posterior triangle
-Boundaries - SCM, trapezius, clavicle
-Roof - platysma and investing fascia
-Floor - levator scapulae, splenius capitis and scalenes
-Contents - CN XI, cutaneous nerves of cervical plexus, EJV, transverse cervical and suprascapular arteries, posterior belly of omohyoid, brachial plexus
-Divided by posterior belly of omohyoid into occipital and subclavian triangles
Anterior triangle
Boundaries - SCM, neck midline, inferior border of mandible
Roof - platysma and investing fascia
Divided by anterior belly of omohyoid and digastric into submandibular, submental, muscular and carotid triangles
-Twisting of the neck
-Occurs due to injury to SCM or CN XI
Hyoid bone
-Located at C3 level
-Has body, greater and lesser horns
Lesion of CN XI in neck
-Denervates trapezius - drooping of the shoulder
-Denervates SCM - twisting of the neck
Cervical plexus
-Ventral rami of C1-C4
Cutaneous nerves of cervical plexus
-LESSER OCCIPITAL - C2 - along posterior border of the SCM to scalp behind ear
-GREATER AURICULAR - C2-C3- ascends on SCM, innervates skin behind ear and parotid gland
-TRANSVERSE CERVICAL - C2-C3 - turns around posterior border of SCM and innervates skin of anterior cervical triangle
-SUPRACLAVICULAR NERVE - C3-C4 - under SCM - innervates skin over clavicle and shoulder
Cervical muscles
-PLATYSMA - CN VII - depresses lower jaw and lip, wrinkles skin on neck
-SCM - CN XI - turns face toward opposite side, both - flexes head, raises thorax
Suprahyoid muscles
-DIGASTRIC - anterior and posterior bellies both insert on intermediate tendon attached to body of hyoid, posterior belly - CN VII, anterior belly - nerve to mylohyoid (CN V) - elevates hyoid and floor of mouth
-MYLOHYOID - CN V - elevates hyoid and floor of the mouth, depresses mandible
-STYLOHYOID - CN VII - elevates hyoid
-GENIOHYOID - C1 via CN XII -elevates hyoid and floor of the mouth
Infrahyoid muscles
-STERNOHYOID - ansa cervicalis - depress hyoid and larynx
-STERNOTHYROID - ansa cervicalis - depress thyroid and larynx
-THYROHYOID - C1 via CN XII - dperesses and retracts hyoid and larynx
-OMOHYOID - ansa cervicalis - depresses and retracts hyoid and larynx
Ansa cervicalis
-NERVE LOOP made by superior and inferior roots, lies in anterior triangle, innervates infrahyoid muscles (EXCEPT thyrohyoid)
Phrenic nerve
-descends on anterior scalene under SCM
Subclavian artery
-Arises from brachiocephalic trunk on the right and directly from aortic arch on the left
1. VERTEBRAL - 1st part, in transverse foramena of C1-C6, through foramen magnum
2. THYROCERVICAL TRUNK - inferior thyroid, transverse cervical and suprascapular arteries
4. COSTOCERVICAL TRUNK - deep cervical + superior intercostal - 2nd part
Internal carotid artery
-Located in carotid sheath together with IJV and CN X
-Enters skull through carotid canal in petrous part of temporal bone
-Gives rise to ophtalmic artery
External carotid artery branches
1. Superior thyroid
2. Ascending pharyngeal
3. Lingual
4. Facial
5. Occipital
7. Superficial temporal
8. Posterior auricular
"Sally Ann Likes Flirting On Main Streets Of Philadelphia"
Transverse facial artery is a branch of _
Superficial temporal artery
Retromandibular vein
-Anterior part jons facial vein to make common facial vein and posterior part joins POSTERIOR AURICULAR to make EJV
External jugular vien
-Made by posterior part of retromandibular and posterior auricular veins
-Crosses SCM obliquely and drains into subclavian vein
Internal jugular vein
-Begins as continuation of sigmoid sinus at jugular foramen and descends in carotid sheath to enter subclavian vein
-Receives superior and middle thyroid veins, facial vein and lingual vein
Central venous line
-Inserted to subclavian or IJV
Superficial cervical lymph nodes
-Lie along EJV in posterior triangle and along AJV in anterior triangle
-Drain into deep cervical nodes
Deep cervical lymph nodes
-Lie along IJV
During thyroidectomy, most likely to be injured are _
-Thyroid ima artery and inferior thyroid vein
-Also recurrent laryngeal nerve may be injured as well
CN X in neck
-Runs through jugular foramen and gives SUPERIOR LARYNGEAL NERVE which is divided into INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL LARYNGEAL NERVES

EXTERNAL - runs with superior thyroid artery,supplies cricothyroid and inferior constrictor
INTERNAL - runs with superior laryngeal artery, supplies sensation to larynx above vocal cords and taste to epiglottis
Sympathetic chain in neck
-Covered with prevertenral fascia
-Contains preganglionic and postganglionic sympathetic fibers, cell bodies for postganglionic sympathetic fibers
-SUPERIOR CERVICAL GANGLION - cell bodies of postganglionic sympathetic fiebrs that pass to visceral structures of head and neck - gives rise to internal and external carotid nerves, contributes sympathetics to pharyngeal plexus
-INFERIOR CERVICAL GANGLION - becomes stellate ganglion
Superficial (investing layer) of deep cervical fascia
-Splits to enclose SCM and trapezius
Prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia
-Encloses vertebral column and muscles
-Covers scalenes and deep muscles of the back
Danger space of the neck
-Space between anterior and posterior layers of prevertebral fascia - extends from base of the skull to diaphragm providing route for infection
Carotid sheath
-Contains common and internal carotid arteries, IJV and CN X
-DOES NOT contain sympathetic trunk which lies posterior to it and is enclosed in prevertebral fascia, also attached to the base of skull
Pretracheal layer of fascia
-Encloses larynx and trachea, encloses thyroid gland and contributes to carotid sheath
-Attaches superiorly to thyroid and cricoid cartilage and inferiorly to pericardium
Infection in pretracheal fascia can spread to _
Superior mediastinum
Pharyngobasilar fascia
-Between mucous and pharyngeal constrictors
Buccopharyngeal fascia
-covers buccinator and pharynx
Facial nerve
-Comes from STYLOMASTOID FORAMEN and appears posterior to parotid gland
-BRANCHES - temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical
-Innervates muscles of facial expression, stylohyoid and posterior belly of digastric
Trigeminal nerve
Sensory to skin of face
V1 - ophtalmic - above upper eyelid and skin of the nose - supraorbital, supratrochlear, infratrochlear, exernal nasal and lacrimal nerves
V2 - maxillary - zygomaticofacial, zygomaticotemporal and infraorbital nerves
V3 - mandibular - below lower lip - auriculotemporal, buccal and mental nerves
Branches of facial artery
Ascending palatine

Superior and inferior labial
Superficial temporal artery runs with what nerve
Danger area of the face
-Area of the face near nose drained by facial veins - skin infections can spread to cavernous sinus via ophtalmic veins, facial veins or pterygoid venous plexus