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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
blood plasma
liquid portion of blood
91% water, rest is proteins
albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
albumin
major plasma protein produced in liver
regulation of water movement between tissues and blood
globulins
some are part of immune system
others are transport molecules
fibrinogen
responsible for the formation of blood clots
formed elements of blood
composed of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
erythrocytes
red blood cells
majority
lack nucleus, biconcave
contain oxygen carrying protein hemoglobin
hematocrit (Hct)
% of red blood cells in blood
used to diagnose anemia and polycythemia
anemia
blood has a low oxygen carrying capacity
caused by not enough RBCs, decreased and abnormal hemoglobin
polycythemia
an abnormal increase in the number of RBCs
causes blood to become thick and flow sluggishly
leukocytes
white blood cells
less than 1% total blood volume
nucleus, no hemoglobin
protect body and remove cells
granulocytes
WBCs
contain large cytoplasmic granules and lobed nuclei
3 types: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
agranulocytes
WBCs
contain very small granules that can't be seen with a light microscope
2 types: lymphocytes and monocytes
platelets
thrombocytes
seal small tears in blood vessels and release chemicals that promote blood clotting
hemostasis
stoppage of bleeding
very controlled response that involves many chemical substances
vascular spasm
occurs when blood vessels are damaged
smooth muscle contracts immediately to reduce blood loss
platelet plug formation
platelets stick to damaged parts of blood vessels
platelets release substances (ADP) that attract more platelets
coagulation
complex step by step process that results in formation of blood clots
depends on coagulation factors
purkinje fibers
receive action potentials from bundle branches and passes them to the ventricular myocardium
atrioventricular bundle
in superior portion of the interventricular septum
receives action potentials from AV node and relays them to right and left bundle branches
atrioventricular node
in interatrial septum above tricuspid valve
receive action potentials from SA node and relays them to AV bundle
sinoatrial node
in wall of right atrium just inferior to superior vena cava
sets basic pace for heart rate
relays action potentials to AV node
cardiac conducting system
establishes fundamental rhythm
has modified cardiac muscle cells that relay action potentials throughout the heart
coronary artery disease
narrowing of coronary arteries
causes reduced blood flow (ischemia) resulting in hypoxia
can lead to heart attack
caused by thrombus, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery spasm
cardiac veins
receive deoxygenated blood from myocardium and empty blood into right atrium by coronary sinus
right and left coronary arteries
branches give oxygenated blood to myocardium
aortic semilunar valves
prevent back flow of blood to heart
located between aorta and left ventricle
no chordae tendineae or papillary muscles
pulmonary semilunar valve
prevent back flow of blood into heart
located between pulmonary trunk and right ventricle
no chordae tendineae or papillary muscles
chordae tendineae
attach to papillary muscles to prevent valves from swining back into atria
left atrioventricular valve
between atria and ventricles
called bicuspid or mitral valve
ventricles contract and valves shut
right atrioventricular valve
between atria and ventricles
also called tricuspid valve
shut when ventricles contract
left ventricle
receive oxygenated blood from left atrium
pumps oxygenated blood to rest of body by way of aorta
thick
right ventricle
receives deoxygenated blood from right atrium
pumps deoxygenated blood into pulmonary trunk
left atrium
receives oxygenated blood from lungs by way of pulmonary veins
pumps oxygenated blood to left ventricle
coronary sinus
deoxygenated blood from the heart muscle
inferior vena cava
deoxygenated blood from below diaphragm
superior vena cava
deoxygenated blood from above diaphragm
right atrium
receives deoxygenated blood from superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus
pumps deoxygenated blood into right ventricle
endocardium
composed of epithelial tissue and connective tissue
lines internal surface of heart
myocardium
composed of cardiac muscle
epicardium
also called visceral pericardium
part of pericardium
serous pericardium
composed of simple squamous epithelial tissue
2 parts: parietal and visceral
fibrous pericardium
composed of connective tissue
pericardium
double layered sac that surrounds the heart
anchors and protects the heart
fibrous and serous portions
systemic circulation
all the blood carried to everywhere else in the body
pulmonary circulation
blood that is sent to the lungs to get oxygenated
cardiovascular system
heart, blood vessels, and blood
transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones around body
expiration
diaphragm relaxes and moves superiorly and abdominal muscles and internal intercostals depress the ribs
inspiration
diaphragm contracts and moves inferiorly and pectoralis minor, scales, and external intercostals elevate the ribs
bronchial veins and azygos venous system
returns deoxygenated blood from lung tissue to heart
bronchial arteries
supplies oxygenated blood to lung tissue
pulmonary veins
delivers freshly oxygenated blood to heart
pulmonary arteries
delivers venous blood that needs to be oxygenated to lungs
branch into smaller blood vessels forming capillaries surrounding alveoli
pneumothorax
occurs when pleural cavity fills with air
can cause atelectasis (lung collapse)
pleural cavity
cavity located between the two layers of pleura
filled with pleural fluid
visceral pleura
covers the lungs
parietal pleura
covers inner thoracic wall, mediastinum, and superior surface fo diaphragm
pleura
double layered serous membrane surrounding lungs
hilum
region on medial surface of lung where structures enter and exit lung
lungs
thoracic cavity
contains hilum
divided into lobes by fissures
left - 2 lobes, right - 3 lobes
surrounded by pleura
alveoli
microscopic air sacs in lungs where gas exchange occurs
simple squamous epithelium
oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between them and capillaries
respiratory bronchioles
divided from terminal bronchioles
give rise to alveoli by way of alveolar ducts
asthma attack
smooth muscle in terminal bronchioles contracts reducing the diameter of airways
primary bronchi
right is wider, shorter, and more vertical
divide to secondary and tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles
ciliated epithelium
carina
divides trachea and forms right and left primary bronchi
trachea
windpipe, tubular passageway for air
anterior to esophagus
c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage and trachealis muscle
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
epiglottis
elastic cartilage
closses off the opening of the larynx when we swallow
cricoid cartilage
inferior to thyroid cartilage
hyaline cartilage
maintains an open passageway for air
thyroid cartilage
superior to thyroid gland
hyaline cartilage
maintains open passageway for air movement
larynx
voice box
laryngopharynx
posterior to epiglottis and larynx
continuous with esophagus
passageway for food and air
stratified squamous epithelium
oropharynx
posterior to oral cavity
fauces connect it to oral cavity
palatine and lingual tonsils
passageway for air and food
stratified squamous epithelium
nasopharynx
posterior to nasal cavity
passageway for air
soft palate and uvula close it
openings of auditory canals, pharyngeal tonsil
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
nasal chonchae
protruding medially from each lateral wall of nasal cavity
warm and filter air
nares
external openings of nasal cavity
nasal cavity
roor - ethmoid and sphenoid bones
floor - hard palate
divided by nasal septum
lined with stratified squamous epithelium and pseudostratified epithelium
external nose
composed of hyaline cartilage and bone
functions of nose
provides an airway for breathing
moistens, warms, and filters air
contains olfactory receptors
lower respiratory system
consists of the larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
upper respiratory system
nose, pharynx, and associated structures
functions of respiratory system
supply blood with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
regulate blood pH
voice production
olfaction
protection
pulse
alternate expanstion and elastic recoil of an artery wall with each heartbeat
artery near surface, over hard tissue, or near heart is strongest
radial
diastolic blood pressure
force of blood recorded during ventricular relaxation
systolic blood pressure
force recorded during ventricular contraction
blood pressure
pressure exerted on walls of a blood vessel
measured with sphygmomanometer
korotkoff sounds
factors aiding venous return
skeletal muscular contraction
venous valves
respiratory pump
venules
smallest veins
transport blood out of capillaries
veins
vessels that carry blood toward heart
thinners walls because of lower pressure
capillary networks
site of substance exchange between the blood and body tissues
capillaries
smallest blood vessels
consist of endothelium, basement membrane, and thin layer of loose connective tissue
grouped into capillary networks
arterioles
smallest arteries
transport blood into capillaries
tunica adventitia
consists of dense connective tissue and loose connective tissue
tunica media
consists of smooth muscle cells and the external elastic membrane
tunica intima
consists of endothelium, basement membrane, the lamina propia, and the internal eleastic membrane
arteries
vessels that carry blood away from heart
3 layers
thicker because of higher pressure
blood vessel functions
carry blood
exchange nutrients, waste products, and gases
transport
regulate blood pressure
direct blood flow