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114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Illiofemoral Ligament, Ischiofemoral Ligament and Pubofermoral Ligament
Join femur and pubic bone together
Syndesmosis
(amphiarthrotic)

-Fibrous-
Bones bound by interosseous ligament.
example: Tibiofibular articulation
Fibrous
Articulating bones fastened together by thin layers of fibrous connective tissue
Suture
(synarthrotic)

-Fibrous-
Flat bones united by sutural ligament
example: Parietal bones articulate sagittal suture of skull
Gomphosis
(synarthrotic)

-Fibrous-
Cone-shaped process fastened in bony socket by periodontal ligament
example: root of tooth united with jaw bone
Cartiaginous
Articulating bones connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
Synchondrosis
(synarthrotic)

-Cartiaginous-
Bones united by bands of hyaline cartilage
example: Joint between epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone
Symphysis
(amphiarthrotic)

-Cartiaginous-
Articular surfaces separated by thin layers of hyaline cartilage attached to band of fibrocartilage
example: Joints between bodies of adjacent vertebrae
Synovial (Diarthrotic)
Articulating bones surrounded by joint capsule of ligaments and synovial membranes; ends of articulating bones covered by hyaline cartilage and separated by synovial fluid
Ball and socket


-Synovial-
Ball shaped head of one bone articulates with cup shaped socket of another
example: shoulder, hip
Condyloid


-Synovial-
Oval shaped condyle of one bone articulates with elliptical cavity of another
example: Joints between metacarpals and phalanges
Gliding


-Synovial-
Articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved
example: Joints between various bones of wrist and ankle
Hinge


-Synovial-
Convex surface of one bone articulates with concave surface of another
example: Elbow and joints of phalanges
Pivot


-Synovial-
Cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with ring of bone and fibrous tissue
example: Joint between proximal ends of radius and ulna
Saddle


-Synovial-
Articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions; surface of one bone fits complementary surface of another bone
example: Joint between carpal and metacarpal of thumb
Meniscus
Disk of fibrocartilage
Tendon
attaches muscle to bone
ligament
attaches bone to bone
Bursa(e)
Sac filled with synovial fluid
Aruate Popliteal
Fibula to femur on anterior side
Oblique Popliteal
Tibia to femur on the posterior side
Fovea Capitus
Holds blood vessels that supply blood to femur
Flexion
bending parts at a point so that the angle b/t them is decreased and the parts come closer together (bending at the knee)
Extension
straightening parts at a joint so that the angle b/t them is increased and the parts move further apart (straighting the leg at the knee)
Hyperextension
Excessive extension of the parts at the joint, beyond the anatomical position (bending the head back beyond the upright possition)
Dorsiflexion
Flexing the foot at the ankle (bending the foot upward)
Plantar Flexion
Extending the foot at the ankle (bending the foot downward)
Abduction
Moving a part away from the midline (lifting the arm horizontally to form a right angle with the side of the body)
Adduction
Moving a part toward the midline (returning the arm from the horizontal possition to the side of the body)
rotation
Moving a part around an axis (twisting the head from side to side)
circumduction
moving a part so that it's end follows a circular path (moving a finger in a circle without moving the hand)
Supination
Turning the hand so that the palm is upward or turning the foot so that the medial margin is raised.
Pronation
Turning the hand so that the palm is downward, or turning the foot so that the medial margin is lowered.
Eversion
Turning the foot so that the sole is outward
Inversion
Turning the foot so that the sole is inward
Protraction
Moving a part forward (thrusting the chin forward)
Retraction
Moving a part backward (pulling the chin backward)
Elevataion
Raising a part (shrugging shoulders)
Depression
Lowering a part (drooping shoulders)
Tendon consists of...
Fiberous connective tissue (collagen)
Origin, Action and Insertion
Origin-attached and does not move
Action-movement
Insertion-attached and does move
Origin, Action and Insertion of the bicep
Origin-Coracoid Process
Action-Flexion
Insertion-Radius
Filament
smallest structure in a skeletal muscle
Myofibrils
Group of filaments
Endomysium
Connective tissue seperting the myofibril
Muscle Fiber
Muscle Cell. group of myofibrils with a membrane around it, called sarcolemma.
Fascicle
Bundle of fibers (enclosed by perimysium)
Epimysium
Layer of connective tissue that closely surrounds a skeletal muscle. Surrounds fascicles to form a muscle.
Fascia
Fibrous connective sheeth that separates adjacent muscles and holds it in possition. (OUTTER MOST COVERING OF EVERY MUSCLE)
Aponeuroses
Broat sheet of connective tissue that attaches a muscle to another muscle
Tendon
A cord like extension of the fascia that interwines with the periosteum and anchors the muscle to the bone
Sarcolemma
Equivalent to the cell membrane
Sarcoplasm
Equivalent to the cytoplasm (surrounds the myofibrils)
Myosin
a protein which is found in the dark band of muscle. (makes up 2/3 of muscle tissue)Thick
Actin
A protein which is found in the light band of muscle (makes up 1/4 of muscle tissue) Thin
Z-Line
Point of attachment I bands
Sarcomere
the segment of myofibril b/t successive Z lines (unit of measurment)
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Corresponds to the endoplasmic reticulum of a cell (b/t the myfibril and the nucleus) Serves for transporting substances into muscle fiber
Transverse Tubules
Membranous channels that extend inward from the sarcolemma (fibers membrane) and pass all the way through the fiber
Together, these...
Activate the muscle contraction when a fiber is stimulated
Cisternae
an enlarged portion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum that lies on each side of the transverse tubules. This is where calcium is stored.
Impulses go in through
Sensory neurons
Impulses go out through
Motor neurons
Neuromuscular Junction (Myoneural Junction)
Axon (nerve fiber) and Muscle fiber meet
Motor End Plate
convoluted (folded) portion of the sarcolemma at the junction.
Motor Unit
A motor neuron and the muscle fiber it controls
Neurotransmitter
The chemicals stored in syaptic vesicles
Synaptic Vesicle
Store neurotransmitters
Synaptic Cleft
The gap b/t the nerve fiber and muscle fiber (like a cannal)
How nerve impulse works...
You send action potential (nerve impulse) down from spinal cord into muscle fiber
Tropomyosin
Rod shaped protein that occupies the longitudinal grooves of the actin helix
Troponin
a protein molecule that is attached to the surface of each tropomyosin molecule
Acetylcholine
neurotransmitter that diffuses across the gap at the myonural junction
Muscle Impulse
stimulus or action potential that travels in all directions over the surface of the sarcolemma
Cholinesterase
an enzyme within te membrane of the motor end plate that decomposes the action of acetylcholine
ATPase
enzyme that causes ATP molecules to release the energy stored in their terminal phosphate bonds
Creatine Phosphate
A muscle biochemical that stores energy
Mycglobin
Pigment responsible for reddish-brown color in muscles
Oxygen Debt
The amount of oxygen that must be supplied following physical exercise to convert accumilated lactic acid to glucose
Lactic Acid
An organic compound formed by pyruvic acid during the anerobic reactions of cellular respirations
Threshold Stimulus
Minimum amount of stimulus that is necessary for a muscle to contract
All or None Response
Either the entire muscle contracts or none of it does
Isotonic
muscular contraction in which the muscle length changes
Isometric
muscular contraction in which the muscle length does not change
Sliding Filament Theory or Rachet Theory
Actin and Myosin slide inward along each other
Contaction (1)
Acetylcholine is released from the distal end of a motor neuron
Contraction (2)
Acetylcholine diffuses across the gap at the neuromuscular junction
Contraction (3)
The sarcolemma is stimulated, and a muscle impulse traves over the surface of the muscle fiber and deep into the fiber through the transverse tubules and reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Contraction (4)
Calcium ions diffuse from the sarcoplasm and bind to troponin molecules
Cisternae
an enlarged portion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum that lies on each side of the transverse tubules. This is where calcium is stored.
Impulses go in through
Sensory neurons
Impulses go out through
Motor neurons
Neuromuscular Junction (Myoneural Junction)
Axon (nerve fiber) and Muscle fiber meet
Motor End Plate
convoluted (folded) portion of the sarcolemma at the junction.
Motor Unit
A motor neuron and the muscle fiber it controls
Neurotransmitter
The chemicals stored in syaptic vesicles
Synaptic Vesicle
Store neurotransmitters
Synaptic Cleft
The gap b/t the nerve fiber and muscle fiber (like a cannal)
How nerve impulse works...
You send action potential (nerve impulse) down from spinal cord into muscle fiber
Tropomyosin
Rod shaped protein that occupies the longitudinal grooves of the actin helix
Troponin
a protein molecule that is attached to the surface of each tropomyosin molecule
Acetylcholine
neurotransmitter that diffuses across the gap at the myonural junction
Muscle Impulse
stimulus or action potential that travels in all directions over the surface of the sarcolemma
Cholinesterase
an enzyme within te membrane of the motor end plate that decomposes the action of acetylcholine
Contraction (5)
tropomyosin molecules move and expose specific sites on actin filaments
Contraction (6)
Linkages form b/t actin and myosin filaments
Contraction (7)
Actin filaments slide inward along the myosin filaments
Contraction (8)
Muscle fiber shortens as a contraction occurs
Relaxation (1)
Cholinesterase causes acetylcholine to decompose and the muscle fiber membrane is no longer stimulated
Relaxation (2)
Calcium ions are actively transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Relaxation (3)
Linkages b/t actin and myosin filaments are broken
Relaxation (4)
Troponin and tropomyosin molecules inhibit the interaction b/t myosin and actin filaments
Relaxation (5)
Actin and myosin filaments slide apart
Relaxation (6)
Muscle fiber lengthens as it relaxes and its resting state is reestablished.