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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name 5 functions of the Nervous System
Sensory Input
Homeostasis
Muscle / Gland control
Mental Activity
Integration
What are the 2 Main division of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
What are the 2 divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System
Afferent (Sensory)
Efferent (Motor)
What are the 2 Division of the Efferent Nervous System
Autonomic
Somatic
A bundle of Axons and their sheaths
Nerve
Ending of a Nerve or separate, specialized cell that detects various stimuli.
Sensory Receptor
There are this many Cranial Nerves
12
There are this many pairs of Spinal Nerves
31
A collection of neuron cell bodies outside the CNS
Ganglion
An extensive network of Axons outside the CNS
Plexus
Collection of nerve cell bodies and Unmyelinated axons and dendrites in the CNS.
Gray Matter
Bundles of parallel axons and their myelin sheaths in the CNS.
White Matter
General term for Non-neural "helper" cells
Neuroglia
Connective tissue sheath that covers entire nerve.
Epineurium
Connective tissue sheath that covers individual nerve fibers.
Endoneurium
Connective tissue sheath that covers individual nerve fassicles
Perineurium
What are the 2 division of the Autonomic system? What is meant by they are recipricol?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic. They cannot both dominate at same time.
What does the Autonomic Nervous system control.
Involuntary (smooth / cardiac) muscle movement and glands
The cell body of the neuron
Soma
Process of the neuron that functions in input of stimulus to soma.
Dendrites
Process from soma that functions in conduction of action potentials and the releasing of neurotransmitters.
Axon
The cone shaped area of a neuron that gives rise to the axon.
Axonal Hillock
Where do efferent neurons conduct action potentials?
Away from the CNS to muscle
Where do afferent neurons conduct action potentials?
Away from sensory receptors to the CNS.
Where do interneurons conduct action potentials?
From one neuron to another.
Cells found in the CNS that produce myelin sheaths that wrap around multiple axons.
Oligodendrocytes
Glial cells in the CNS that become motile and phagocytotic.
Microglia
Cells that line the ventricles of the brain that function to remove or produce Cerebral spinal fluid.
Ependymal Cells
Cells that cover blood vessels, pia mater, and neurons that functions in forming the blood brain barrier.
Astrocytes
Cell that provides support and nutrients to a neuron.
Satellite Cell
Cell that wraps around an axon in the PNS, forming a myelin sheath
Schwann cell
Increased extracellular potassium ion levels results in what?
Hypopolarization
What happens when sodium channels are blocked?
Sodium cannot enter the cells to cause an action potential. Therefore action potentials will not occur.
Increased extracellular calcium ion levels results in what?
The blocking of sodium channels, which results in less action potentials.
when depolarization occurs at the postsynaptic membrane, the membrane potential is brought closer to threshold.
Excitatory postsynaptic potential
when depolarization occurs at the postsynaptic membrane, the membrane potential becomes farther from threshold.
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
the effects of one stimulus added to the effects of another stimulus occurring.
Summation
two action potentials arrive simultaneously at 2 separate presynaptic terminals that synapse with the same postsynaptic neuron.
Spatial summation
two action potentials arrive at slightly different times, causing depolarization followed by slight repolarization followed by depolarization of the second action potential that could bring the membrane to threshold.
Temporal Summation
When a post-synaptic membrane is partially depolarized
Facilitation
What is an electrical synapse? Where do we see them and how do they work?
a. Gap junctions that allow ions to flow between adjacent cells.
b. Found in cardiac muscle cells to allow coordination of muscle contraction
What is a chemical Synapse? Where do we see them and how do they work ( give the mechanism)?
a. Neurotransmitters are released from a pre-synaptic terminal by an action potential
b. Neurotransmitters flow across the synaptic cleft
c. Neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites on the postsynaptic membrane to allow ions to flow into the cell.
Where are Neurotransmitters released from?
Presynaptic Terminal
activates muscles in the PNS, major neurotransmitter of the autonomic nervous system. Often has an excitatory effect.
AcetylCholine
found in the CNS, act on opiate receptors to block pain
Endorphins
connective tissue strand at end of spinal cord, attaches spinal cord to coccyx.
filimentum terminale
Many neurons converge and synapse with one neuron, often found in the circulatory system.
Convergent
a smaller number of neurons with synapse with a larger number of neurons. Found in skeletal muscle
Divergent
conelike tapered region at the end of the spinal cord.
Conus Medullaris
numerous roots of spinal nerves extending inferior to the lumbar enlargement
Cauda Equina
Why does the spinal cord end at L2?
Spinal cord stops growing early in life, but the vertebral column continues to grow.
Dorsal root ganglion houses what type of neurons?
Sensory (afferent)
What is a reflex? What are its’ components?
a. An automatic response that occurs without conscious control.
b. Components are sensory receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector organ.
(Reflex) Sensory receptor causes action potential which goes to interneuron then to effector organ to remove stimulus.
Withdrawl
(Reflex) Associated with Withdrawl Reflex, Recipricol innervation occurs to opposing muscle group, causing relaxation.
Crossed Extensor
(Reflex) Prevents contracting muscles from applying too much tension to tendons. Stimulation of golgi tendon organ. Causes relaxation of muscle.
Golgi Tendon
(Reflex) Muscle Spindle Fiber found inside muscle tissue, Provides information on how much the muscle is stretched. Contractile ends are innervated by gamma motor neurons.
Stretch
most inferior part of brain stem, controls respiration, heart rate, swallowing, vomiting, and coughing. Crossing over occurs here.
Medulla Oblongata
superior to the medulla oblongata, works with medulla to control respiration. Relays impulses between cerebrum and cerebellum.
Pons
Superior to pons, houses tectum with 2 parts superior and inferior colliculli
Midbrain
Posterior to Pons, contains arbor vitae, controls balance, posture, eye movement, coordination of muscle movement.
Cerebellum
Cerebral Palsy is caused by damage to what?
Cerebellum
Relay center that acts as the sensory “switchboard” of the brain. Also influences mood and actions associated with strong emotion.
Thalamus
Inferior to Thalamus, major control center for homeostasis, regulates thirst, hunger, temperature, and endocrine function.
Hypothalamus
superior and posterior to thalamus, involved in emotional and visceral responses to odors.
Epithalamus
(Lobe) functions in intellect, creativity, motivation, sense of smell, voluntary motor movement, Broca’s speech area.
Frontal
(Lobe) perception of sensory input, Wernickes area, sensory speech area, associated with coherent speech
Parietal
(Lobe) functions in visual perception
Occipital
(Lobe) functions in perception of smell and hearing.
Temporal
Where and what makes cerebrospinal fluid?
Produced by the Choroid Plexus, in lateral and fourth ventricles.
Where does sensation occur?
Cerebral Cortex
Receptors that detect pain
Nociceptors
Receptors that detect ligth
Photoreceptors
Receptors that detect mechanical stimuli
Mecahnoreceptors
Receptors that detect chemical stimuli
Chemoreceptors
Receptors that detect temperature
Thermoreceptors
(receptor) found at terminal ends of dendrites, Responsible for sensation of pain, temperature, itch, movement, and crude touch.
Free Nerve endings
(receptor) Found throughout basal layer of epithelium, sensation of light touch and superficial pressure.
Merkel's disks
(receptor) found deep in dermis and hypodermis, that detects deep pressure and high frequency vibrations.
Pacinian Corpuscles
(receptor) Found throughout the dermal papillae, involved in two-point discrimination, found in numerous sensitive areas. Also detects moving touch.
Meissner’s corpuscles
(receptor) specialized skeletal muscle fibers, provide information about length of muscle, involved in stretch reflex.
Muscle Spindle Fibers
Associated with fibers of tendons activated by increase in tension on tendon, stimulation causes relaxation of muscle involved.
Golgi Tendon organs
pain felt in an area of the body that not the source of the pain stimulus.
referred pain
contains neurons of somatic system.
Ventral Horn
contains soma of autonomic system
Lateral Horn
What is the effect of binding of AcH to Nicotinic receptors? Muscarine?
a. Sodium channels open, depolarization occurs
b. Opening of sodium and potassium channels.
What is the effect of binding of norepinephrine to the following receptors: alpha 1 and 2, Beta 1 and 2.
a. A1 – located in postsynaptic membrane of smooth muscle, causes opening of calcium channels, depolarization occurs, muscle contracts.
b. A2 – Located in presynaptic membranes, opens potassium channels, causes hyperpolarization.
c. B1 –located in heart muscle, increases heart rate and forces contraction.
d. B2 – Located in smooth muscle, causes relaxation and dilation.
What type of receptor cell do we see for olfaction?
Bipolar cells
What are the basal cells and supporting cells and how do they function?
Basal cells allow for regeneration of olfactory cells every 2 months.
Define anosmia. Why does it occur?
Inability to perceive smells, due to muscosal damage, neurological damage or genetic factors.
What are the four different lingual papillae, how are they distributed? What is their shape? Which are most sensitive? Least?
a. Filiform – most numerous on tongue surface, no taste receptors
b. Vallate – Largest, form row on posterior tongue
c. Fungiform – Many scattered across superior surface of tongue
d. Foliate – distributed in folds on lateral and anterior edges of tongue, most numerous receptors, most sensitive.
How can taste be affected?
a. Olfaction
b. Temperature
c. Texture