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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Development of Digestive System(1):
the gut begins as a single tube called the ___ ___ extends from the future ____ to the future ____
gut tube
mouth
anus
Development of Digestive System(2):
the gut tube is suspended in the abdominal cavity by _______ which carry ____ ____ and _____ between the body wall and developing gut
mesenteries
blood vessels
nerves
Development of Digestive System (3):
the mesenteries are membranes of 2 "balloons" called the ____ ____ (that originally fill the abdomen) and join at the body's midline
peritoneal sacs
Development of Digestive System (4):
the gut tube _____ and _____ considerably, and other organs, such as the liver, bud off of it
elongates

rotates
Abdominal Cavity
-bordered superiorly by the ______
-bordered inferiorly by the ___ ____
-lined by the ______ (serous membrane)
-diaphragm
-pelvic cavity
-peritoneum
Functions Digestive System
1. ______:occurs when materials enter tract via mouth
2.______ ______: chewing
3.______: release of water, acids, enzymes and buffers by cells of epithelial lining and by glandular organs
ingestion
mechanical processing
secretion
Functions of Digestive System(2):
-______:chemical breakdown of food into small fragments
-______:movement of organic substrates,ions,vitamins,and water
-______: removal of waste products from body
digestion
absorption
excretion
4 layers of digestive tract inside to outside
-mucosa
-submucosa
-muscularis
-serosa
inner lining of the digestive tract
mucosa
surface epithelium
-______
or
-____ ______
stratified (many layers)

simple columnar
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and anus surface epithelium:
function- ______
lined with ____ ____ for ______
transport

stratified epithelium for protection
stomach,small and large intestine surface epithelium:
function-____ and ____
lined with ___ ____ ____ for rapid _____ across the epithelial lining
digestion and absorption

simple columnar epithelium

transport
Lamina Propria
-loose ____ ____
-contains small ___ ____
-contains small sensory and motor _____
connective tissue
blood vessels
nerves
Submucosa
-dense irregular ____ ____
-contains large ___ ____
-large _____
connective tissue
blood vessels
nerves
Muscularis:
-2 thick layers of ___ ___
-involved in ______
smooth muscle

peristalsis
Serosa:
-___ ___ of the digestive tract
-composed of _____ ____ epithelium
-loose ____ ____
outer lining
simple squamous
connective tissue
Functions of Oral Cavity:
-____ _____: through actions of teeth and tongue
-______: mixing with salivary gland secretions
-some ____: saliva contains _____(breaks down starches) and _____(breaks down lipids)
mechanical processing
lubrication
digestion:amylase and lipase
a common passageway for solid food, liquids, and air
pharynx
transports solid food and liquids to the stomach
esophagus
Wall of esophagus has 3 layers:
-_____ with ___ ____ ____ ____
-submucosa
-muscularis
mucosa: statified squamous unkeratinized epithelium
Functions of the Stomach:
- ____ of ingested food
- ______ of ingested food
- some _____
- some _____
storage
sterilization
digestion
absorption
Lining of Stomach:
-___ ___ ____
-invaginates to form ____ ____
simple columnar epithelium

gastric glands
Cells of Stomach Lining:
-___ ___:secrete ___
-___ ___:secrete ___ and ____ ____
-___ ___:secrete _____ converted by HCl to ____ (enzyme that breaks down protein)
mcous cells: mucus
parietal cells: HCl and intrinsic factor
chief cells:pepsinogen, pepsin
Cells of Stomach Lining(2):
-____ ___: ___(release the hormone gastrine)
-___ ___
endocrine cells: g-cell

stem cells
functions of small intestine:
plays a key role in ____ and ____ of nutrients (90%)
digestion and absorption
Duodenum receives:
-___ from ____
-___ ____ and ____ from ___ and ____
chyme from stomach

digestive enzymes and buffers from the pancreas and liver
site of most digestion and absorption
jejunum(middle region of small intestine)
Ilium:
___ segment of small intestine
ends at ___ ___
last

ileocecal valve
epithelial cells lining small intestine(1):
-_____ ___ contain microvilli to increase surface area for _____
-____ ____ secrete ___
absorptive cells, absorption

goblet cells, mucus
epithelial cells lining small intestine(2):
-____ ___
1.___ cells secrete cholecystokinin
2.___ cells secrete secretin
3.___ cells secrete gastric inhibitory peptide
-____ ____
endocrine cells
-CCK
-S
-GIP
stem cells
Functions of Large Intestine:
-_____ of _____
-____ of ____
-____ of ____ prior to defecation
absorption of water
compaction of feces
storage of feces
Regions of Large Intestine:
____:expanded pouchlike first portion
____:largest portion, series of pouches
____:last 6 inches of digestive tract
cecum
colon
rectum
S-shaped segment of colon
sigmoid colon
left side of abdomen colon
descending colon
right side of abdomen colon
ascending colon
crosses abdomen from right to left colon
transverse colon
Cells lining Colon:
-main cell type of its simple columnar epithelial linging is the ___ ___ that produces vast amounts of ____ for lubrication of feces
-also contains ____ ____ (water,bilie,vitamins)
-colon has no ___
goblet cell, mucus
absorptive cells
villi
inferior to the rectum
lined by stratifed squamous keratinized epithelium
anus