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46 Cards in this Set

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Parts of the cell
1.The plasma membrane
2.The cytoplasm
3.The nucleus
PLASMA MEMBRANE
selective permeable membrane that allows certain substances to get into and out of the cell.

Composed of: Phospholipids,Proteins(Peripheral-transporters, Integral-act as enzymes),Carbohydrates, Cholesterol
Two types of movement that takes place within cells
PASSIVE MOVEMENT-molecules pass through the plasma membrane from area of higher concentration to lower without use of ATP.

ACTIVE MOVEMENT-when substances move across a selectively permeable membrane from a area of higher to lower concentration with the use of ATP.
Passive Movement includes:
1.Diffusion-random movement of molecules high to low

2.Facilitated Diffusion-carrier proteins combine temp to molecules allow them to pass through membrane via protein channels

3.Osmosis-when water passes through a selectively permeable from high to low water level.

4.Filtration-process that forces small particles dissolved in a solution to cross semiperm membrane with help of hydorstatic pressure.

5.Dialysis-Exchange of solutions between two solutions seperated by a semiperm membrane.
Active Movement includes:
1.Active Transport-uses energy from breakdown of ATP to move substances across a semipermeable membrane against a concentration gradient.

2.Exocytosis-fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, followed by their expulsion from the cell.

3.Endocytosis-process which particles are engulfed by cytoplasm extensions, forming membrane bound vesicles within the cytoplasm
Three types of Endocytosis
1.Pinocytosis-"cell drinking", plasma membrane invaginates and encloses small amounts of fluid, releasing them into the cytoplasm.

2.Receptor-mediated endocytosis-when extracellular large molecules bind specific receptors on plasma membrane.

3.Phagocytosis-"cell eating", ability of the plasma membrane to engulf large particles and digest them.
THE CYTOPLASM
Portion of the cell located between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. Consists of and aqueoud phase and a particular phase.
Phases in cytoplasm
Aqueous-"fluid phase", consists of CYTOSOL

Particular-consists of organelles and inclusions.
Organelles
Endoplasmic Reticulum-network of tubes the channels flow of substances around the cytoplasm.

Smooth/Rough ER-SMOOTH:free of ribosomes,site of steroid synthesis. ER ROUGH-covered in ribosomes, assists in protein synthesis.

Ribosomes-sites of protein synthesis.

Golgi apparatus-flattened sacs that store and package secretory proteins.

Lysosomes-organelles that contain digestive enzymes "suicide bags"

Peroxisomes-involved in formation of hydrogen peroxide.

Mitochondria- have folds called "cristae, are called the "powerhouses" due to ATP production.

ATP-main supplier for most biological activities in the cell.

Cytoskeleton-supportive framwork.

Centrioles-assist in cell division by forming mitotic spindle system.

Cilia-involved in transport of materials along the cell surface.

Flagellum-appendage which protudes from the cell and allow its propulsion.

Secretory Vesicles-contains products of secretion such as protein.
Cytoplasim Inclusions
1.Lipid droplets-storage for energy

2.Glycogen-principal storage form of carbs

3.Zymogen granules- secretory products rich in inactive enzyme.

4.Melanin pigement- most abundant skin pigment

5.Hemosiderin-yellowish brown pigment from degradation of hemoglobin.
THE NUCLEUS
Site where gentic material is stored. Consists of three componenets: Nuclear membrane, Chromatin, Nucleolus.
Nuclear Components
1.Nuclear Membrane-seperates the nucleus from the cytoplasm

2.Chromatin=fiborous strands containing DNA and proteins.

3.Nucleolus-where RNA is sythesized.
Nuclear Membrane
Seperates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Chromatin
Made up of DNA and proteins.
Nucleolus
Dense mass where RNA is synthesized
The Cell Cycle
Period between beginning of one cell division and the beginning of the the next cell division. Two types of cell division: Somatic and Sex cells.
Somatic Cell Division
includes:Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis

Interphase-Active period of cell activity duting which DNA in the nucleus doubles.

Cytokinesis-Division of the cytoplasm into two distinct cells.

Mitosis-Process where two diploid cells result from the division of a parent diploid. Divided into four stages:PROPHASE,ANAPHASE,TELOPHASE,METAPHASE.
Protein Synthesis
Two major steps:Transcription and Translation
Transcription
process where one strand of DNA is used as a template to synthesize a messenger RNA.
Codon
A set of three consecutive nucleotides or triplet on mRNA
Translation
The formation of a polypeptide under the control of mRNA. Broken down into three stages:Initiation, Elongation,Termination
Anticodon
A triplet of nucleotides found on transfer RNA(tRNA). It is complimentary to the codon.
Initiation
Always begins with anticodon "UAC", binds to the codon "AUG" of mRNA and begins protein synthesis
Elongation
Results from the formation of peptide bonds between different amino acids carried by different tRNA's
Termination
Addition of the amino acids to the polypeptide ends when one of the three codons reaches the ribosomes
Tissues
A group or cluster of cells with a common function.

Histology-the study of cells
Classification of Tissues
1.Epithelial Tissue
2.Connective Tissue
3.Muscle Tissue
4.Nervous Tissue
Epithelial Tissue
Cover the body(epidermis).Composes the secreting parts of endrocine and exocrine glands.

ENDROCINE-secretes hormones into bloodstream,no ducts.
EXOCRINE-secrete into their ducts

Is used in protection,filtration,absorption.Contains a basement membrane used to determine if the epithelium is SIMPLE or STRATIFIED. Comes in four shapes:SQUAMOUS,CUBOIDAL,COLUMNAR,TRANSITIONAL.
Simple and Stratified epithelium tissue
Simple-one layer of cells attached to basement membrane.

Stratified-more than one layer of cells with the bottom layer attached to the basement membrane.
Epithelial shapes
Squamous-flat-like

Cuboidal-cube-shaped

Columnar-tall,looklike columns

Transitional-hotair ballons
Connective Tissue
Found in all parts of the body,connects epithelium tissue to other parts of the body, most abundant tissue in body.

Is used in protection, support.Has two components:Ground substance and Fibers. Types of connective tissue:Embryonic,Areolar,Bone,Blood.
Muscle Tissue
Highly specialized to contract(shorten) in order to produce movement of some body parts. Has three types of muscles: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
Types of muscles
SKELETAL-The "meat" of the body;attached to the skeleton.It is voluntarily controlled.

CARDIAC-Found only in the heart,is uninucleated,is involuntary.

SMOOTH-Smallest muscle cell,also has uninucleated cells,involuntary, found in the walls of hollow organs.
Nervous Tissue
Composed of two major cell populations: Neuroglia and Neurons.
Neuroglia
Special supporting cells that protect,support,and insulate the more delicate nuerons.
Neurons
Highly specialized to receive stimuli, and to conduct waves of excitation. They are the cells most associated with nervous system functions.
Body Membranes
Fall into two major categories: Epithelial and Synovial
Epithelial Membranes
CUTANEOUS-The skin

MUCOUS-Composed of epithelial cells resting on a layer of loose connective tissue called lamina propria.

SEROUS-Composed of a layer of simple squamous epithelium on a scant amount of loose connective tissue.
Synovial Membranes
Composed of connective tissues, lines the cavaties surrounding the joints.
Transmembrane Potential
Outside the cell is slightly positively charged and the inside is slightly negatively charged, phospholipid membrane keep them apart creating a potential difference.
Resting Potential
Transmembrane potential of an undisturbed cell.
Triplets
Triplets formed on Messenger RNA(mRNA),called a codon.

Triplets formed on Transfer RNA (tRNA), called a anticodon.
Functions of the Integumentary System
1.Insulates and cushions the underlying tissues.
2.Protects body
3.Acts as excretory system
4.Site for assemblage of vitamin D
5.Large sensory organ
Components of the Cytoskeleton
1.Microtubules
2.Microfilaments
3.Intermediate Filaments
Appendages of the skin
Hair,Nails,and cutaneous glands
Transitional Epithelium
Lines urinary bladder,only epithelial tissue that can stretch without being damaged.