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13 Cards in this Set

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What are the divisions of the autonomic nervous system & their function?
SYMPATHETIC = excitation (exertion , stress or emergency)
Fright, flight or fight

PARASYMPATHETIC = inhibition (dominates during resting)
Rest and digest or breed and feed
Where are ganglionic and preganglionic motor neurons found?
Part of the Autonomic Nervous System:
Preganglionic- found in the CNS
Ganglionic-
What are the 2 major pathways of the nervous system and function?
Somatic Nervous System (SNS) - contraction of skeletal muscle; motor neurons extend from the CNS to their effectors
lower motor (motor nucleus/gray matter CNS) skeletal muscle; usually myelinated

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) – visceral effectors
(smooth muscle, cardiac muscle , glands)
2 motor neurons (minimum)
preganglionic neuron - in CNS
ganglionic neuron - peripheral ganglion outside CNS
Where are the origin sites for the sympathetic and parasympathic nervous system?
Parasympathetic = brain & sacral spinal cord
Sympathetic = thoracolumbar spinal cord
Describe the lengths of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
Length of fibers: Parasympathetic = long preganglionic, short postganglionic
Sympathetic = short pre; long post
What neurotransmitter does preganglionic fibers release?
Acetylcholine
What neurotransmitter does postganglionic parasympathetic terminals release?
Acetylcholine
What neurochemical does postganglionic synaptic terminals release?
Norepinephrine
What are some of the functions of the parasympathetic nervous system?
Constriction of pupils
Secretion by digestive glands
Secretion of hormones that promote nutrient absorption
Smooth muscle activity along digestive tract
Stimulation & coordination of defecation
Contraction of urinary bladder – urination
Constriction of respiratory passageways
Reduction of heart rate and force of contraction
Sexual arousal and stimulation of sex glands
Where are preganglionic neurons located in the sympathetic division?
Preganglionic neurons in lateral gray horns, axons in ventral root
Where are the ganglionic neurons located in the sympathetic division?
Gangionic neurons near vertebral column
What are the functions of the sympathetic nervous system?
Stimulates dilator muscles of eye
Inhibits salivary & digestive gland secretion
Stimulates copious sweating
Stimulates medulla cells to secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine
Stimulates contraction of arrector pili
Increases heart rate and force of contraction
Vasodilation of heart blood vessels
Dilates bronchioles
Constricts urethral sphincter – inhibits urination
Decreases activity of glands and muscles of digestive system
Contracts anal sphincter
Stimulates liver to release glucose to blood
Constricts most vessels and increases blood pressure
Increases alertness
Increases metabolic rate
What neurotransmitter does sympathetic ganglionic neurons release?
Sympathetic Ganglionic neurons usually release norepinephrine at neuroeffector junctions [adrenergic]