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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 main requirements of sensory systems
1. Stimulus
2. Receptors
3. Brain
Signal from environment
detects stimulus - converts it to a neural impulse
recieve impulse, integrate it, produce a perception of the stimulus
General senses
Found throughout body
Can be somatic or visceral
Somatic general senses
concious, voluntary
tactile, thermal, pain, preprioception
Visceral general senses
unconcious, involuntary
Conditions in internal organs
Special senses
Vision, hearing, taste, smell, balance
-Head oriented
Types of stimuli we can respond to:
Light, (electromagnetic spectrum), heat/cold, pressure/pain, mechanical energy (soundwaves), soundwaves
Two types of receptors
1. Neurons
2. Unique cells
Two types of neurons:
1. Free nerve endings
2. Encapsulated nerve endings
Free Nerve Endings
Naked dendrite detects stimulus, initiates impulses
-smell, pain, temperature, tickle, itch
Encapsulated Nerve Endings
Dendrites wrapped in c.t. capsule
-e.g. Meissner/Pacinean corpuscles
-Pressure, vibration, touch
What do encapsulated nerve endings enhance?
-enhance sensistivity/
selectivity of receptor (this stimulus but not that one)
Unique Cells
Recieves stimulus, communicates signal to adjoining neuron
~Rods/cons in eye
-Taste buds in mouth
-Hair cells in ear
The 3 Tactile Sensations
1. touch
2. pressure
3. vibration
Found in skin, different receptors for fine or crude touch
Deformation of deep tissue in skin
-Pacinean corpuscles have to be squeezed to feel this sensation
Touch and pressure receptors that are stimulated repeatedly
Thermal Sensations
Cold Receptors:
Inside s. basale, activated by 10-40 C
Heat Receptors:
In dermis (deeper in skin then cold receptors), activated by 32-48 C
What does temperatures <10 or >48 trigger?
Trigger pain receptors, not cold/heat receptors. The body doesn't care if it's hot or cold, it just wants to get out.
Fast Pain Receptors
a pain sensation
1. Near the skin
2. Sense sharp, quick pain
3. Fairly abundant, often w/ reflex (no brain)
Slow Pain Receptors
a pain sensation
1. Deeper in body
2. Builds slowly, aching/throbbing
Provides info on location/movement of body parts
Receptors in muscles
-Muscle spindles (LL corkscrew fibers)
-Info on degree of streching in a muscle
Receptors in tendons
-Tendon organs
-Info about tension on tendon as muscle contracts
Receptors in joints
-Joint kinesthetic receptors
-Info about position and movements of joints
How is sensory information relayed to brain?
3 neuron pathway
1st order neuron to
2nd order neuron to
3rd order neuron
1st Order Neurons
Carry signal from site of stimulation to brain stem/s. cord
2nd Order Neurons
Carry signal from brain stem/s.cord to thalamus
3rd Order Neurons
Carry signal from thalamus to appropriate part of cerebrum
Where do the signals go when they get to the brain?
3rd order neurons arrive in post-central gyrus for interpretation
Special Senses
-Receptors are distinct and localized in specific parts of head
-Neural pathways variable
-Receptors (1st order neurons) are cilia on dendrites of bipolar neurons
-Sits on cribiform plate on ethmoid bone
Neuron pathway for olfaction:
synapse = the axon of 1st order and dendrites of 2nd order in olfactory bulb
Some of the 2nd order travel to ________ ________(awareness of smells, emotions due to smells)
Limbic system
Some of the 2nd order neurons travel to _________, allowing discrimination of odors.
Why do some of the 2nd order neurons in olfactino bypass the thalamus?
Because smell is such an old sense evolutionarily.
Taste: Only 5 different tastes can be recognized:
Sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami and maybe water
Gustation receptors
Receptors are cells on tongue, soft palate, pharynx, and epiglottis
-Group of cells = TASTE BUD
-Microvillus of cell extends up through a pore, picks up chemical signals
Neuron pathway for gustation:
Receptors and synapse
Receptor cells excited by chemicals, send signal to 1st order neurons
-via c.n. VII and IX
-synapse in medulla
The 2nd order neurons of gustation go from the medulla to one of two places:
1. Limbic System:
Pleasure/dislike to taste
2. Thalamus:
3rd order to cerebrum
Taste discrimination
The two accessory structures of eye:
1. Muscles that control eye movement
2. Lacrimal apparatus- make/ release/drain tears
Muscles that control eye movement
-Six extrinsic eye muscles-produced fine tuned eye movements
-controlled by motor neurons c.n. III, IV, and VI
Lacrimal Apparatus purpose and 3 main structures
makes drains tears
1. Lacrimal gland
2. Lacrimal canals (collects tears)
3. Lacrimal sac (stores then drains tears to nasal cavity)
Lacrimal glands
Produces tears
-water, salts, antibacterial enzymes
-moistens, cleans eye surface
Outer tunic of eyeball
Sclera = white of eye, c.t.
Cornea = clear front of eye, epithelial cells and some c.t.
The 3 sublayers of the middle tunic of eyeball (vascular)
1. Choroid
2. Ciliary Body
3. Iris
-Provides nutrients to inner eye
Ciliary body
-Anterior to choroid, extends almost to cornea
-Muscles, ligaments that alter shape of lens for focusing near/distance.
-Colored part
-Smooth muscle regulates how much light enters eye through pupil
The lens of the eye is attached to the __________ body and changes shape to focus light on back of ________ for clear vision.
Ciliary, retina
Inner tunic of the eyeball
-Lines the posterior portion of eye
-Photoreceptors (rods/cons) and 2 layers of neurons
Neuron pathway for vision:
Receptors / 1st order
Rods/cons stimulated
1st order = bipolar cells stimulate (first neuron layer)
Neuron pathway for vision:
2nd order neuron
2nd order = Ganglion cells form optic nerve (second neuron layer)
What regulates synapses between bipolar and ganglion layers?
Amacrine and horizontal cells
The two optic nerves cross at a point called the ______ ________. Some _______ sides, some _______.
Optic chiasm
Switch, don't
Neuron pathway for vision:
3rd Order Neuron
-Signals travel to the thalamus
-New neuron carries signal to cerebrum
Hearing uses ________/______/
_________. While euilibrium uses ___________ ear.
3 structures of the external ear:
1. Pinna (earflap funnels sound waves)
2. External auditory meatus (Carries sound waves into ear)
3. Tympanic membrane (Vibrates when sound waves hit it)
Middle Ear
3 bones in contact with tympanic membrane and each other.
The order of the ossicles in the middle ear is:_____, _____, ______. These bones _______ and ________ the signal.
Malleus, incus, stapes
Vibrate and augment
The ______ lays agaisnt the _______ window.
Stapes, oval
The 3 parts of the inner ear:
1. Oval window
2. Cochlea
3. Hair cells (receptors)
Oval Window
Vibrations against this membrane displaces the fluid in cochlea in ear
The fluid within the cochlea is called the _____________.
Movement of __________ moves hair cells embedded in walls of ___________
Hair cells = ____________ cells. Send signals to ________ (c.n. ______)
How much hair cells move = ___________
Volume = (loud vs. soft)
Which hair cells get moved = ___________
Groups of hair cells are called ____________
Organ of Corti
Two structures for equilibrium within vestible:
1. Saccule
2. Utricle
The saccule and utricle
One senses verticle exceleration, the other senses horizontal exceleration
Semicircular canals
3 in x,y and z planes of head
Hair cells in regard to equilibrium:
All the structures of equilibrium have perilymph and hair cells
Neuron pathway for hearing/equilibrium:
______ neuron pathway from ear to ____________
Neuron pathway for hearing/equilibrium:
1. in c.n. VIII to
2. in nuclei of medulla to
3. in inf. colliculi to
4. in thalamus to