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160 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 types of glands
- difference
- location of secretions
1) Exocrine - ducted - open onto an epithelial surface
2) Endocrine: ductless, secrete directly into the bloodstream
location of endocrine cells
highly vascularized areas to ensure that their products enter the bloodstream immediately
Purpose of endocrine system
regulatory system that works closely with the nervous system
5 pure endocrine organs
- location
1) pituitary - below hypothalamus
2) pineal - back of thalamus
3) thyroid - throat
4) parathyroid - dorsal aspect of thyroid
5) adrenal - top of kidneys
4 organs containing endocrine cells
- location
1) pancreas - overlaps left kidney toward right one
2) thymus - top of heart
3) gonads - ovaries and testis
4) hypothalamus
Origin of endocrine cells
epithelial origin
neuroendocrine organ
hypothalamus - produces hormones and has nervous functions
Basic action of hormones
influence only specific tissues - target cells
- a hormone can have different effects on different target cells
3 types of stimuli that trigger hormone secretion
1) humoral - secretion in direct response to changing ion or nutrient levels in the blood. Ex: parathyroid - to reverse decline of blood calcium
2) neural - sympathetics stimulate cells in the adrenal medulla
3) Hormonal - certain hormones signal secretion of other hormones. Ex: hypothalamus hormones stimulate pituitary - stimulates other glands
negative feedback loop
high blood glucose -- insulin is released -- body cells take up blood glucose so levels in blood decline resulting in insulin release stopping
positive feedback loop
Baby suckles triggering the release of oxytocin which triggers milk ejection for the mammary gland. Baby feeds and more milk is produced
another term for the pituitary
hypophysis
location and shape of pituitary
slightly oval
- housed within sella turcica
- connected by the infundibulum to the hypothalamus
Divisions of the pituitary
1) Adenohypophysis - anterior lobe
2) Neurohypophysis - posterior lobe
hormones released by the pituitary
1) ADH - antidiuretic hormone - kidneys
2) OXT - oxytocin - uterus, mammary glands
3) MSH - melanocyte stimulating hormone
4) GH - growth hormone - all body cells
5) ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone - Adrenal cortex
6) PRL - prolactin - produce milk
7) LH - Luteinizing hormone - ovaries, testes
8) FSH - follicle stiumlating hormone - ovaries, testes
9) TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone
3 subdivisions of the adenohypophysis
1) pars distalis (largest)
2) pars intermedia
3) pars tuberalis (wraps around infundibulum)
2 subdivisions of the neurohypophysis
1) pars nervosa
2) infundibular
number of hormones made and secreted by the pars distalis
- 2 main types
7 hormones
1) Tropic - regulate hormone secretion by other glands: TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
2) GH, PRL, MSH
what produces:
1) growth hormone
2) thyroid-stimulating
3) follicle-stimulating & Luteinizing
4) prolactin
1) somatotropic cells
2) thyrotropic cells
3) gonadotropic cells
4) prolactin cells
purpose of melanocyte-stimulating hormone
- appetite supression
Master control center of the endocrine system
Hypothalamus - oversees most endocrine activity by secreting hormones that influence the secretion of the anterior pituitary gland
purpose of:
- releasing hormones
- inhibiting hormones
1) prompt anterior lobe to release hormones
2) turn off secretion of anterior lobe hormones
Path of releasing hormones
- secreted like neurotransmitters
- enter a primary capillary plexus
- travel to a secondary capillary plexus
- from here hormones secreted by the anterior lobe enter general circulation
characteristics of the posterior lobe of the pituitary
1) structurally part of brain
2) axons make up the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
- arise from neuronal cell bodies (supraoptic and paraventricular nuculus) in the hypothalamus
3) does not make hormones
4) stores and releases hormones made in the hypothalamus
5) releases 2 peptide hormones: ADH, oxytocin
characteristics of the thyroid
- located in the anterior and lateral of the neck
- left & right lobes connected by isthmus in front of the 1st 3 tracheal cartilages
- composed of follicles and areolar connective tissue
- produces 2 hormones: 1) thyroid hormone 2) calcitonin
2 types of endocrine cells in the thyroid and what they produce
1) follicular cells - produce TH
2) Parafollicular cells: produce calcitonin
Characteristics of parathyroid glands
1) posterior surface of the thyroid
2) 2 types of endocrine cells:
a) chief cells - produce parathyroid hormone - increases blood concentration of calcium.
b) oxyphil cells: function unknown
characteristics of adrenal glands
1) also called suprarenal glands
2) supplied by about 60 suprarenal arteries
3) nerve supply is almost exclusively sympathetic fibers
4) Two endocrine glands in one: a) adrenal medulla b) Adrenal cortex
Characteristics of the adrenal Medulla
1) cluster of neurons
2) derived from neural crest
3) part of sympathetic NS
4) chromaffin cells: modified ganglionic sympathetic neurons
- secrete amine hormones (epinephrine and nor-E) which enhance fight-or-flight
characteristics of adrenal cortex
1) derived from somatic mesoderm
2) forms the bulk of the gland
3) secretes steroid hormones - corticosteriods
4) 3 layers (zones)
a) zona glomerulosa - cells arranged in spherical clusters
b) zona fasciculata - in parallel cords - contains lipid droplets
c) zona reticularis - in branching network
2 main classes of adrenal corticosteriods
1) mineralocorticoids: aldosterone - secreted by the zona glomerulosa when blood volume or blood pressure drops
2) glucocorticoids: cortisol - secreted by zonas fasciciulata & reticularis
Which part of adrenal is associated with long and short-term stress responses
- short-term - medulla (amino-acid based hormones)
- long-term - cortex (steroid hormones)
characteristics of the pineal gland
- located on the roof of the diencephalon
- shaped like a pine cone
- pinealocytes secrete melatonin - circadian rhythms
characteristics of the pancreas
1) posterior of abdominal wall
2) contains 2 types of cells
a) exocrine cells - 99% by mass
b) endocrine - 1% by mass: islets of Langerhans - about 1 million scattered throughout
4 types of endocrine cells in the pancreas
1) alpha cells - secrete glucagon - signals liver to release glucose from glycogen
2) Beta cells - secrete insulin - signals body cells to take up blood glucose and storage of glucose is glycogen in liver
3) delta cells - secretes somatostatin - inihbits secretion of insulin and glucagon
4) F (PP) cells - secrete pancreatic polypeptide - may inhibit exocrine activity of the pancreas
(last 2 are rare)
Characteristics of the thymus
- located in mediastinum - above heart
- large during childhood and puberty but shrinks in adulthood
- functions: a) T-cell maturation (immune system)
b) secretes thymosin (endocrine system)
Characteristics of the testes
interstitial cells secrete androgens
- mainly testosterone - promotes the formation of sperm and maintains secondary sex characteristics
Characteristics of the ovaries
theca folliculi secrete androgens
- converted to estrogen by follicular granulosa cells
- estrogen - secondary sex characteristics
- progesterone - prepares the uterus for pregnancy
Other structures that have endocrine cells
1) heart - atria (atrial natriuretic peptide)
2) GI tract - enteroendocrine cells
3) placenta - sustains fetus & secretes several steroid protein hormones
4) kidneys - renin and erythropoietin
5) skin - modified cholesterol molecules convert to a precursor of Vit D
Gigantism
- pituitary disorder
- hypersecretion of GH in children
pituitary dwarfism
- pituitary disorder
- hyposecretion of GH in children
diabetes insipidus
- pituitary disorder
- pars nervosa doesn't make enough ADH
Diabetes Mellitus
Pancreas disorder
- causes: 1)insufficient secretion of insulin 2) resistance of body cells to the effects of insulin
- Type 1: T cell-mediated autoimmune response destroys beta cells - juvenile
- type 2: adult, usually after 40, cells have lowered sensitivity to insulin - diet and exercise
Grave's disease
- most common type of hyperthyroidism
- immune system makes abnormal antibodies
- stimulates the over secretion of TH
- leads to nervousness, weight loss, sweating, rapid heart rate
Myxedema
adult hypothyroidism
- antibodies attack & destroy thyroid tissue
- low metabolic rate and weight gain
Cretinism
hypothyroidism in children
- short, disproportionate body, thick tongue, mental retardation
endemic goiter
due to lack of iodine in the diet - thyroid
Addison's disease
- hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex
- deficiencies of both types of steroids
- bronzing of skin
cushing's syndrome
hypersecretion of glucocorticoid hormones - usually a pituitary tumor
- high glucose in blood
- loss of protein from muscles
- fat redistributed to back of neck
embryological origin of:
1) thyroid
2) parathyroids and thymus
3) pineal gland
4) Pituitary
5) adrenals
1) thickening endoderm on the floor of the pharynx
2) endoderm lining the pharyngeal pouches
3) ependymal cells
4) adenohypophysis - roof of mouth
- neurohypophysis - grows inferiorly from the floor of the brain
5) Adrenal medulla - neural crest cells of sympathetic trunk ganglia
- adrenal cortex- mesoderm lining the coelom
hormones that drop significantly with age
sex hormones, GH, & DHEA - dehydroepiandrosterone (adrenal cortex)
Functions of blood
1) carry respiratory gasses, nutrients, hormones
2) help body regulate temperature
Composition of blood
1) Plasma - 55% by vol - water, 100 kinds of molecules, nutrients
a) 3 main proteins: albumin, globulins, fibrinogen
2) formed elements
a) buffy coat - lukeocytes and platelets
b) erythrocytes
hemopoiesis
production of blood cells in the red marrow
- 100 billion new cells formed each day
3 types of blood cells
1) erythrocytes - red blood cells
2) Leukocytes - white blood cells
3) Platelets - thrombocytes
5 things that develop from a hemocytoblast
1) proerythroblast
2) myeloblast
3) lymphoblast
4) monoblast
5) Megakaryoblast
Heritage of an erythrocyte (from first to last)
1) hemocytoblast
2) proerythroblast
3) polychromatic erythroblast
Heritage of a leukocyte
All begin with hemocytoblast
*Branch 1: 1) Myeloblast 2) Progranulocyte
3) basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil - all granulocytes
*Branch 2: 1) Lymphoblast 2) lymphocyte = agranulocyte
*Branch 3: 1) Monoblast 2) Monocyte = agranulocyte
Heritage of a thrombocyte
1) hemocytoblast
2) Megakaryoblast
3) megakaryocyte
4) thrombocyte
2 types of lukocytes
granulocytes
agranulocytes
Location of red marrow in adults
1) between trabeculae of spongy bone of axial skeleton
2) girdles
3) proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur
Location and characteristics of yellow marrow
1) in long bones of adults
2) dormant - makes blood cells only in emergencies
3) contains many fat cells
tissue framework of bone marrow
reticular connective tissue
- reticular cells = the fibroblasts covering and secreting the fiber network
blood sinusoids
wide capillaries that run through the reticular tissue
- mature blood cells enter the blood stream through these.
mesenchymal stem cells
- located in the reticular network of bone marrow
- can give rise to fat cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, and muscle cells
Two types of stem cells
1) Lymphoid stem cells - give rise to lymphocytes
2) myeloid stem cells - give rise to all other blood cells
structure of an erythrocyte that is important to function
1) lack a nucleus - can go through capillary one at a time
2) biconcave shape increases surface area and adds flexibility
3) contain about 280 million hemoglobin molecules that bind 3 molecules of Oxygen together
5) few organelles - no mitochrondria so don't consume O2 it carries
4) most numerous of the formed elements in blood
erythropoietin
hormone released by kidneys when oxygen levels are low which stimulates the red bone marrow to make more erythrocytes
what gives blood its red color
oxidation of iron atoms in hemoglobin molecules
Function and characteristics of leukocytes
1) function outside blood stream in loose connective tissue
2) protect body from infectious microorganisms
3) neutrophils - 50-70%
4) Lymphocytes - 24-45%
5) monocytes - 3-8%
eosinophils - 2-4 %
basophils - least numerous
diapedesis
process of leukocytes leaving capillaries to enter loose connective tissue
Neutrophils
- function and characteristics
1) most numerous of the leukocytes
2) nucleus has 2 to 6 lobes that are connected
3) function: phagocytize and destroy bacteria
Eosinophils
- function and characteristics
1) 1 to 4% of leukocytes
2) nucleus has 2 lobes
3) function: ends allergic reactions, parasitic infections
basophils
- function and characteristics
1) about .5% of leukocytes
2) nucleus - usually 2 lobes
3) function: histamines - mediate inflammation
Lymphocytes
- function and characteristics
1) 20 to 45% of leukocytes
2) nucleus - large and spherical
3) fight infectious organisms - against a specific antigen
- most important cells of the immune system
4) 2 main classes
a) T Cells - attack foreign cells directly
b) B cells - multiply to become plasma cells - secrete antibodies
monocytes
- function and characteristics
1) 4 to 8% of leukocytes
2) nucleus is C-shaped
3) largest of all leukocytes
4) transform into macrophages in lymphoid tissues
Platelets
- function and characteristics
1) cell fragments that break off from megakaryocytes
2) function in clotting of blood
polycythemia
- abnormal excess of erythrocytes
anemia
erythrocyte levels or hemoglobin concentrations are low
sickle cell disease
defective hemoglobin molecule that distorts the RBC into a sickle shape
- inherited condition
hemachromatosis
- abnormal excess of iron
- inherited
Thrombocytopenia
abnormally low concentration of platelets
leukemia
form of cancer that arises in
a) lymphoid cells - lymphoblastic leukemia
b) myeloid cells - myeloblastic leukemia
- acute forms are in children and adults
- chronic forms are primarily in adults
fetal blood formation
- mesenchyme cells
- late 2nd month - liver and spleen
- 7th month - bone marrow
2 circuits being supplied by the heart
1) pulmonary circuit - blood too and from lungs
2) systemic circuit - vessels taking blood to and form body tissues
Location of heart
- largest organ in mediastinum between lungs
- apex is left of the midline
- base is the broad posterior surface
What is found in anterior mediastinum
thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, lymphatics
- bordered by sternum and heart
What is found in middle mediastinum
- heart, trachea, aortic arch, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary hila, lymph nodes
- anterior border - anterior heart border
- posterior border - posterior heart border and trachea
What is found in posterior mediastinum
esophagus, descending aorta, azygous and hemiazgous veins, paravertebral LN, sympathetic chain, thoracic duct
- bordered by posterior heart and trachea and vertebrae
location of 4 corners of the heart
1) superior right - costal cartilage of 3rd rib & sternum
2) inferior right - costal cartilage of 6th rib lateral to sternum
3) superior left - costal cartilage of 2nd rib laterla to sernum
4) inferior left - lies in the 5th intercostal space at the midclavicular line
2 layers of pericardium
1) fibrous pericardium - strong layer of dense connective tissue
2) serous pericardium - 2 layers
a) parietal layer
b) visceral layer = epicardium
Layers of heart wall
1) epicardium - visceral layer of the serous pericardium
2) myocardium - cardiac muscle
3) endocardium - endothelium resting on a layer of connective tissue ; lines internal walls of heart
coronary sulcus
depressions on outside of heart for coronary blood vessels
- anterior and posterior interventricular sulcus
pre/postnatal circulation
1) foramen ovale - in aterial septum - becomes fosaa ovalis
2) Ductus arteriosus - from pulmonary trunk to aortic arch - becomes ligamentum arteriosum
Structures in right atrium
1) pectinate muscles - ridges inside anterior of right atrium
2) crista terminalis - land mark used to locate veins entering right atrium - ridge
3) fossa ovalis - depression in interatrial septum
structures on walls of ventricles
1) trabeculae carneae
2) papillary muscles
3) chordae tendineae
composition of valves
1) endocardium with connective tissue core
2) fibrous skeleton surrounds all 4 valves - made of dense connective tissue
- Functions: a) anchors valve cusps b)prevents overdilation of valve openings c) main point of insertion for cardiac muscle d) blocks direct spread of electrical impulses
heart sounds
- locations where best heard
1) Lub - AV valves closing
2) dub - semilunar valves closing
- Pulmonary - superior L corner
- Aortic - superior R corner
- Mitral - apex
- Tricuspid - inferior right corner
Blood flow through heart
-Vena Cavas to R atrium
-Tricupsid valve
-R ventricle through pulmonary semilunar valve to pulmonary trunk/arteries to lungs
- 4 pulmonary veins to L atrium through mitral valve to L ventricle
- Aortic semilunar valve to Aorta
Systole and diastole
- systole - contraction of a heart chamber
- diastole - expansion of a heart chamber
difference in heart wall thickness
Atria - thin walls
- ventricles - thick walls
- Left ventricle is 3X thicker than right
characteristics of cardiac muscle cells
1) short 2) striated
3) branching 4) one or 2 nuclei
5) not fused colonies like skeletal muscle
6) cells separated by endomysium - contains blood vessels and nerves
7) cells join at intercalated discs - complex junctions
3 types of cell junctions: intercalated discs
1) desmosomes
2) fasciae adherans - long desmosome-like junctions
3) gap junctions
inherent rhythmicity
not all cardiac cells are innervated but still contact in rhythmic manner
- basis for the rhythmic heartbeat
- muscle tissue has intrinsic ability to generate and conduct impulses
conducting system in heart
- series of specialized cardiac muscle cells
1) sinoatrial (SA) node sets the inherent rate of contraction
2) atrioventricular node
3) atrioventricular bundle
4) bundle branches
5) purkinje fibers - stimulate cells of ventricles
Nerves to heart
1) visceral sensory fibers
2) parasympathetic branches of vagus nerve - decreases heart rate
3) sympathetic fibers from cervical and upper thoracic chain ganglia - increases heart rate
blood supply to heart
coronary arteries - R and L
cardiac veins
first open heart procedure at U of M
first correction of tetralogy of Fallot
1954
first small battery-powered pacemaker
1958
myocardium
muscular layer of heart
coronary artery
artery to the myocardium
thrombus
- Embolus
plaque that is stationary
- when a plaque detaches & can move to distant sites
myocardial infarction
heart attack
cardiomyogenesis
process leading to formation fo myocardium
ischemia
restriction of blood supply to tissue
- tissue distal to occlusion dies
- results in wall thinning elevating overall stress
coronary artery diseases
1) atherosclerosis - fatty deposits - build up of plaque in blood vessels
2) angina pectoris - chest pain
3) silent ischemia - no pain or warning
aneurysm
ballooning of a blood vessel
- caused by atherosclerosis and hypertension
heart failure
progressive weakening of the heart
Congestive heart failure
heart enlarges, pumping efficiency declines
pulmonary arterila hypertension
enlargement and potential failure of right ventricle
2 types of arrythmias
1) ventricular fibrillation - rapid, random firing of electrical impulses in the ventricles. common cause of cardiac arrest
2) atrial fibrillation - impulses circle within atrial myocardium stimulating AV node
- promotes formation of clots, leads to strokes
congenital heart defects
1) ventricular septal defect - most common
2) Tetralogy of Fallot - 4 defects
a) pulmonary trunk too narrow--leads to
b) hypertrophied right ventricle
c) ventricular septal defect
d) aorta opens from both ventricles
3) coarctation of the aorta - part of it is narrowed; increases workload on L ventricle
cardiac tamponade
compression of the heart when fluid builds up in the space between myocardium and pericardium
age related changes
1) hardening and thickening fo heart valve cusps
2) decline in cardiac reserve
3) fibrosis of cardiac muscle
Three layers/tunics in blood vessels
1) tunica intima - simple squamous epithelium
2) tunica media - sheets of smooth muscle
- contraction = vasoconstriction
- relaxation = vasodilation
3) Tunica externa - connective tissue
Types of arteries
1) elastic (conducting) - largest; aorta and major branches
- measured in cm (2.5 to 1)
- high elastin content dampens surge of blood pressure
2) Muscular (distributing) arteries - distal to elastic arteries; most named arteries
- measured in mm 1 cm to .3
- tunica media is thick; elastic membranes on either side of tunica media
3) Arterioles - smallest arteries (.3 mm to 10 μm)
- larger ones have all 3 tunics
- diameter controlled by a) local factors in tissues b) sympathetic nervous system
Characteristics of capillaries
- site specific functions
- smallest blood vessels (8 to 10 μm) - RBCs pass single file
- lungs - O2 enters blood and CO2 leaves
- small intestines - receive digested nutrients
- endocrine glands - pick up hormones
- Kidneys - removal of nitrogenous wastes
capillary beds
- network of capillaries running through tissues
- precapillary sphincters regulate the flow of blood to tissues
- when O2 is needed in the tissue the sphincters are open. when there is plenty they close and the blood flows through the metarteriole, the thoroughfare channel
Routes of capillary permeability
1) endothelial cells - direct diffusion; held together by tight junctions & desmosomes - O2 & CO2
2) intercellular clefts - gaps of unjoined membrane - small molecules can enter and exit
3) cytoplasmic vesicles
4) fenestrations
2 types of capillaries
1) continuous - most common (skin, muscles, CNS, most organs)
2) fenestrated - have pores - found where there very high rates of exchange (small intestine, kidneys, synovial joints)
characteristics of Blood-brain barrier
- capillaries have complete tight junctions
- no intercellular clefts
- vital molecules pass through highly selective transport mechanisms
characteristics of sinusoids
- wide leaky (most permeable) capillaries in liver, bone marrow & spleen
- usually fenestrated
- intercellular clefts are wide open
- have large diameter and twisted course
names of veins that go from capillaries to heart
- postcapillary venules
- venules (8 to 100 μm)
- veins - tunica externa is the thickest tunic in veins
mechanisms to counteract low venous pressure
1) valves in some veins - esp in limbs
2) skeletal muscle pump - muscles press against thin-walled veins
vascular anastomoses
vessels interconnect so organs receive blood from more than one arterial source.
- provides collateral channels
- veins anastomose more frequently than arteries
vasa vasorum
vessels of vessels that nourish outer region of large vessels
- tunica externa of large vessels have tiny arteries, capillaries and veins
Major arteries
- common carotid arteries
- brachiocephalic trunk
- thoracic aorta
- abdominal aorta
- common iliac artery
external iliac artery
Major arteries - pulse point
1) Common carotid artery - neck
2) brachial artery - anterior elbow
3) radial artery - anterior wrist
4) dorsalis pedis artery - anterior ankle
what is supplied by external carotid
thyroid, lingual, facial, occipital, posterior auricular, superficial temporal, maxillary
what is supplied by internal carotid
opthalmic, anterior cerebral, anterior communicating (part of cerebral arterial circle), middle cerebral artery
what is supplied by vertebral arteries
posterior brain
- basilar artery that divides into 2 posterior cerebral arteries - connect to posterior communicating arteries
Circle of Willis
cerebral arterial circle
- 2 posterior communicating arteries join the anterior communicating artery
arteries of upper limb
Subclavian becomes axillary
- becomes brachial (at the inferior border of teres major)
- divides into radial artery and ulnar artery
arteries of the abdominal aorta
1) inferior phrenic arteries 2)celiac trunk 3) superior mesenteric artery 4) suprarenal arteries 5) renal arteries 6) gonadal arteries 7) inferior mesenteric artery 8) common iliac arteries
arteries of pelvis and lower limbs
1) internal iliac 2) external iliac 3) femoral 4) popliteal 5) anterior tibial 6) posterior tibial 7) dorsalis pedis (top of foot) 8) plantar arch
drainage for superior and inferior vena cava
1) superior - superior to diaphragm
2) inferior - inferior to diaphragm
venous plexuses
multivein bundles
unusal patterns of venous drainage
- dural sinuses - head
- hepatic portal system - picks up digested nutrients and delivers them to liver to process
vein used to obtain blood or administer IV fluids
median cubital vein
veins of the thorax
1) azygos
2) hemiazygos
3) accessory hemiazygos
veins of abdomen
1) lumbar
2) gonadal
3) renal
4) suprarenal
5) hepatic
superficial veins of pelvis and lower limbs
- Great saphenous vein - empties into the femoral vein
- small saphenous vein empties into the popliteal vein
Aneurysm
- sac-like widening or outpocketing of an artery/vein that places the vessel at risk of rupturing
deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb
- clots formed in veins (usually thigh)
- usually result of sluggish blood flow - inactive and bedridden patients
Venous disease
- inadequate drainage of lower limb
- elderly
- failure of valves to function
- edema...
microangiopathy of diabetes
elevated blood sugar deposits glycoproteins in basement membrane of body's capillaries
- slower rate of turnover of the tissue fluid
arteriovenous malformation
congenital
capillaries fail to develop in a certain location so an artery goes directly into a vein.
- usually in cerebrum of the brain
fetal circulation
all major vessels in place by month 3
- fetus sends very little blood through the pulmonary circuit
- fetus supplies blood to the placenta
vessels to and from the placenta
1) paired umbilical arteries
2) unpaired umbilical vein
fetal vessels and structures
1) ductus venosus - from pulmonary artery to aorta
2) ligamentum teres - remnant of umbilical vein
3) ligamentum venosum - remnant of ductus venosus (surface of liver)
4) medial umbilical ligaments - remnant of umbilical arteries