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89 Cards in this Set

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Tissue
Groups of cells similar in structure and perform a common or related function.
Four Primary Tissue Types
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nervous.
Histology
Study of Tissues.
Epithelial Tissue
Covers a body surface or lines a body cavity.
6 Roles as an interface tissue?
1. Protection
2. Absorption
3. Filtration
4. Excretion
5. Secretion
6. Sensory Reception
Cellularity
Close-packed cells.
Specialized contacts
Form continuous sheets.
Polarity
Cells differ from other cells in both structure and function.
Apical Surface
Free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an internal organ.
Microvilli
Fingerlike extensions.
Cilia
Propel substances.
Basal Surface
Surface near the base or interior of a structure.
Basal Lamina
Lies adjacent to the basal surface of an epithelium.
Supported by connective tissue
All epithelial sheets rest upon
Reticular Lamina
Fine network of collagen protein fibers.
Basement Membrane
Reinforces.
Innervated but avascular
Nerve fibers but contains no blood vessels.
Regeneration
Replace last cells rapidly by cell division.
Simple Epithelia
Single cell layer
Stratified Epithelia
Stacked
Squamous Cells
Flattened and scalelike.
Cuboidal Cells
Boxlike and tall as they are wide.
Columnar Cells
Tall and column shaped.
4 Major Classes of Simple Epithelia?
1. Simple Squamous
2. Simple Cuboidal
3. Simple Columnar
4. Pseudostratified Columnar
4 Major Classes of Stratified Epithelia?
1. Stratified Squamous
2. Stratified Cuboidal
3. Stratified Columnar
4. Transitional
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Description: Flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm.

Location: Kidney; air sacs of lungs; lining of ventral body cavity.

Function: Diffusion, Filtration, and Secretion.
Endothelium
Provides a slick, friction-reducing lining in the lymphatic vessels and hollow organs of the cardiovascular system.
Mesothelium
Found in the serous membranes lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Description: Cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei.

Location: Ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface.

Function: Secretion and Absorption.
Simple Columnar Epithelium
Description: Tall cells with oval nuclei, some cells bear cilia; layer may contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands.

Location: Digestive tract, gallbladder, and uterine tubes.

Function: Absorption; secretion of mucus, and propel mucus by ciliary action.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
Description: Cells of differing heights; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain goblet cells and bear cilia.

Location: Ducts of large glands; trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.

Function: Secretion and propulsion of mucus.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Description: Basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers.

Location: Linings of the esophagus, mouth; epidermis of the skin.

Function: Protects tissues from abrasion.
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Description: Two layers of cube-like cells.

Location: Largest ducts of sweat, mammary, and salivary glands.

Function: Protection.
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
Description: Basal cells usually cuboidal; superficial cells elongated and columnar.

Location: Male urethra and in large ducts of some glands.

Function: Protection and Secretion.
Transitional Epithelium
Description: Basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome-shaped or squamous-like.

Location: Lines the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra.

Function: Permits distention of urinary organ by contained bladder.
Gland
One or more cells that make adn secrete a particular product.
Secretion
An aqueous fluid that usually contains proteins.
Hormones
Regulatory chemicals that secrete directly into the extracellular space.
Exocrine Glands
Mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands, the liver, the pancreas, and many others.
Multicellular Exocrine Glands
Have an epithelium-derived duct and a secretory unit.
Simple Glands
Have a single, unbranched duct.
Compound Glands
Have a branched duct.
Tubular
Secretory cells form a tube.
Alveolar
Secretory cells form small, flasklike sacs.
Merocrine Glands
Secrete their products by exocytosis as they are produced.
Holocrine Glands
Accumulate their products within them until they rupture.
Unicellular Exocrine Glands
Single cells scattered in an epithelial sheet amid cells with other functions. They have no ducts.
Mucin
Complex glycoprotein that dissolves in water when secreted.
Goblet Cells
Sprinkled in the columnar epithelium cells lining the intestinal and respiratory tracts.
Connective Tissue
Found everywhere in the body.
Subclasses of connective tissues
1. Connective Tissue Proper
2. Bone
3. Cartilage
4. Blood
Major Functions of Connective Tissue
1. Binding and Support
2. Protection
3. Insulation
4. Transportation
Common Origin
All tissues arise from.
Mesenchyme
Derived from the mesoderm germ layer.
Degrees of Vascularity
Avascular= Cartilage
Dense= Poor Vascularization
Extracellular Matrix
Allows connective tissues to bear weight, withstand great tension, and endure abuse.
Ground
Amorphous; Composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins.
Fibers
Provide support.
Collagen
Assembled spontaneously into cross-linked fibers.
Elastic
Stretch and recoil like a rubber band.
Reticular
Form delicate networks of blood vessels.
Fibroblast
Immature connective tissue proper.
Chondroblast
Immature cartilage.
Osteoblast
Immature bone.
Hemocytoblast
Immature blood.
White Blood Cells
Help with tissue's response to injury.
Plasma Cells
Produce anti-bodies.
Mast Cells
Detect foreign substances and initiate local inflammatory responses.
Macrophages
Phagocytize foreign materials.
Heparin
Anticoagulant
Histamine
Make capillaries leaky.
Embryonic
1st Definitive Layer.
What are the two types connective tissue?
Loose and Dense.
Location of Areolar Connective Tissue
Under epithelia forms lamina propria and surrounds capillaries.
Function of Areolar Connective Tissue
Cushions organs and plays important role in inflammation.
Fibroblast
Immature fibers of CT.
Edema
Soaks up excess fluids like a sponge and the affected area swells and become puffy.
In mucous membranes, what is areolar connective tissue present as?
Lamina propria.
What is Adipose tissue?
Closely packed adipocytes.
Location of Adipose tissue?
Under skin; around kidneys; in bones; in breasts.
Function of Adipose Tissue?
Provides food; insulates, supports and protects organs.
Percent of body weight that is Adipose Tissue?
18%
What is Reticular Connective Tissue?
Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells predominate.
Location of Reticular Connective Tissue?
Lymphoid organs.
Function of Reticular Connective Tissue?
Form internal skeleton that supports.
Stroma
Internal framework that can support many free blood cells.
What is Dense Regular Connective Tissue?
Parallel collagen fibers, few elastin, major cell type is the fibroblast.
Where is Dense Regular Connective Tissue?
Tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses.
Function of Dense Regular Connective Tissue?
Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress.