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28 Cards in this Set

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the main purpose of the urinary system is to
mantain the homeostatic balance between electrolytes (salt) and water in the body.
What is another word for urinating?
Micturition
What do we urinate?
nitrogenous wastes
-Urea = mammals
-Uric acid= birds/reptiles
-Creatin

Other bacterial wastes
Drugs we may have comsumed.
the purpose of the urinary system is to remove wastes from the ___________ in the ______________. Proof?
blood; KIDNEYS

The kidneys recieve 20-25% of cardiac output during resting conditions.
Where are the kidneys?
On the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity (retroperotoneal)

About as high as vertebrates T12-L3
Which kidney is lower? why?
The right kidney is lower by about 2 cm because the liver above it is so large.
Gross structures in the kidney include (be able to identify)
Pyramids, Papilla, column,
What is the urineferous tubule?
Nephron + collecting tubule
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
nephron
How many nephrons/kidney?
Are both needed?
1 million

No only 1 is required.
What are the three processes in urine production
Filtration
Reabsorption
Secretion
Filtration

-occurs where
-how does it occur
-what does it block what does it allow thru
Glmerular capsule

Diffusion

lets almost everything pass.
Reabsorption

-what occurs
99% of the nutrients, proteins and water are taken out of the filtrate during this process and put back into the circulatory system.
Secretion

-what occurs
Movement of undesirable molecules INTO the tubule.
What are the two classes of nephrons? which are more abundant? where is each found?
Cortical nephrons
-most are in the cortex (85%)

Juxtamedullary nephrons
-15%
-have long loops of Henle that go deeply into the medulla.
in the kidneys, From big to small and in the proper order blood travels
• Renal arteries
• Segmental arteries
• Lobar arteries
• Interlobar arteries
• Arcuate arteries
• Interlobular arteries
Memorize...
• Afferent glomerular arteriole
o Takes blood to Takes blood away from glomerulus
• Glomerulus
o Filtration capillary
• Efferent glomerular arteriole
o Takes blood away from glomerulus
• Peritubular capillaries
o Wrap around the convoluted tubules
• Vasa recta
o Reabsorption and secretion capillaries
More memorization
• Interlobular vein
• Arcuate vein
• Interlobar vein
• Renal vein
• Inferior vena cava
The ureters are how long?
25 cm
the ureters connect the _______ and _______.
kidney to the bladder.
What are the three layers of the ureters?
Mucosa- inner layer
Muscularis- middle layer
Adventiva- outside layer
In the muscularis section, what histology is found toward the inside? outside?
longitudinal= inside

Circular = outside
The outer layer Adventiva is made up of
connective tissue
Urinary bladders are actually just ___________.

What volume can they hold?
Distensible?
histology?
storage sacs that can hold 500 mL of urine.

Bladder is distensible meaning that it can change shape as required by the volume it holds.

The histology is transitional epthelium allowing for changes in shape.
_______ is the right abouve the bladder. Why is this significant?
Uterus.

Pregnant women constantly have to urinate.
What is the purpose of the urethra?
TUBE that transfers urine from the bladder to the outside.
the female urethra contains what two sphincters under control from ____ muscles.
Internal urethral sphincter under smooth muscle control (involuntary)

External urethral sphincter under control from skeletal muscle (voluntary muscle)
Male urethra also have ______

But also what are the three regions of the urethra?
Prostatic urethra- passes by the prostate. (longest)

Membranous urethra- passes through the urogenital diaphragm

Spongy or penile urethra- passes through the entire penis.