Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/80

Click to flip

80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DEFINE ANATOMY
STRUCTURE
DEFINE PHYSIOLOGY
FUNCTION
What are the 6 levels of Structural Organization
1. Chemical 5. Organ System
2. Cellular 6. Organismal
3. Tissue
4. Organ
Discuss the Chemical Level
Atoms combine to form molecules, and molecules then form organelles
Discuss the Cellular Level
1. Cells are made of molecules
2. there are 2 types of cells
Procreatic and Euocreatoic
Discuss the Tissue Level
Tissues consist of similar types of cells.
There are 4 types of tissues.
1.Epithelio
2. Nervous
3. Connective
4. Muscular
describe the functions of the 4 types of tissue.
-Epithelio (tightly dense tissue
-Nervous (nurons communicate with the nuroglia)
-Connective (sparse cells form a matrix
-Muscular (contains the cardiac, skeletal and smooth tissues
Discuss the Organ Level
organs combine any 1 of the 4 tissues or multiple or all tissues types.
Discuss the Organ System Level
Different organs work together as part of a system
Discuss the organismal Level
several organ systems working together within the organism
Define Movement
Includes the activities promoted by the muscular system,
- propelling ourselves from a-b
- manipulating the external environment
- Also includes liquids being propelled through organs
- At the cellular the contraction is referred to as contractility
Define Responsiveness
Bodies ability to respond to external and internal stimulus
Define Digestion
Humans are heterotrophs. We can only make chemical to chemical changes
What are the four substances consumed during digestion
1. Fat
2. Protein
3. Carbohydrates
4. Nuclei Acids
Define Metabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions in the body.
Most of the metabolism takes place i the membranes of cells
Define Excretion
Removal of waste
Define Reproduction
Somatic cells divide producing 2 daughter cells that are used for body growth and repair
Define Homeostasis
The bodies constant attempt to reach equilibrium. (The body never obtains homeostasis)
How many Organ systems are there and what are they
1. Integumentary
2. Skeletal
3. Muscular
4. Nervous
5. Endocrine
6. Cardiovascular
7.Lymphatic
8. Respiratory
9. Digestive
10. Urinary
11/12. M-F Reproductive
Define Superior
Toward the head end or upper part of the body.
example.
The head is superior to the abdomen
Define Inferior (Caudal)
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of the body (below)
example:
The naval is inferior to the chin
Define Ventral (anterior)
Torward or at the front of the body (in front of)
example
the breastbone is anterior to the spine
Define Dorsal (posterior)
Torward or ate the back of the body (behind)
example:
The heart is posterior to the breastbone
Define Medial
Torward or at the midline of the body (on the inner side of)
example:
the heart is medial to the arm
Define Lateral
Away from the midline of the body, on the outer side
example:
the arms are lateral to the chest
Define Intermediate
Between a more medial and lateral structure.
example:
The collar bone is intermediate to the breastbone and shoulder
Define Proximal
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
example:
the elbow is proximal to the wrist
Define Distal
Farther away from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
example:
the knee is distal to the thigh
Define Superficial (external)
toward the body surface
example:
the skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
Define Deep (internal)
Away from the body surface; more internal
example:
the lungs are deep to the skin
Define Inferior (Caudal)
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of the body (below)
example:
The naval is inferior to the chin
Define Ventral (anterior)
Torward or at the front of the body (in front of)
example
the breastbone is anterior to the spine
Define Dorsal (posterior)
Torward or ate the back of the body (behind)
example:
The heart is posterior to the breastbone
Define Medial
Torward or at the midline of the body (on the inner side of)
example:
the heart is medial to the arm
Define Lateral
Away from the midline of the body, on the outer side
example:
the arms are lateral to the chest
Define Intermediate
Between a more medial and lateral structure.
example:
The collar bone is intermediate to the breastbone and shoulder
Define Proximal
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
example:
the elbow is proximal to the wrist
Define Distal
Farther away from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
example:
the knee is distal to the thigh
Define Superficial (external)
toward the body surface
example:
the skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
Define Deep (internal)
Away from the body surface; more internal
example:
the lungs are deep to the skin
Name the 3 planes of the body
1. Frontal (through the torso)
2. Transverse (through torso inferior view)
3. Median (splits head to toe)
What are the 2 types of Body Cavities
1. Dorsal
2. Ventral
What does the Dorsal Cavity contain
1. Cranial (contains brain)
2. Vertebral (contains spinal cord)
What does the Ventral Cavity contain
1. Thoracic Cavity
2. Abdominal Cavity
3. Pelvic Cavity
The Thoracic Cavity contains...
1. Heart and Lungs
2. Superior Mediastinum
3. Pleural Cavity
4. Pericardial Cavity
Abdominal Cavity contains
Digestive viscera
Pelvic Cavity contains
1. Urinary bladder
2. Reproductive Organs
3. Rectum
Where is the diaphragm located
between the Superior Mediastinum and Abdominal Cavity
Name the 4 Abdominopelvic quadrants
1. RUQ
2. LUQ
3. RLQ
4. LLQ
What are the 9 Abdominopelvic Regions
1. R Hypochondriac
2. Epigastric
3. L Hypochondriac
4. R Lumbar
5. Umbilical
6. L Lumbar
7. R Iliac
8. Hypogastric
9. Left Iliac
Define Growth
An increase in size of a body part.
Define Matter
Occupies space and has mass
What are the 3 states of matter
Gaseous, Liquid, Solid
Define Energy
Capacity to do work
Define Kinetic Energy
Energy in action

example: the rubber band
Define potential Energy
Stored Energy
example: The rubber band
What are the 4 forms of energy
1. Chemical
2. Electrical
3. Mechanical
4. Radian or Electromagnetic
What are the 4 most common elements composing the human body
1. Oxygen 65%
2. Carbon 18.5%
3. Hydrogen 9.5%
4. Nitrogen 3.2%
What are the other 9 elements in the body
1. Ca
2. P
3. K
4. S
5. Na
6. Cl
7. Mg
8. I
9. Fe
Define Molecule
A combination of 2 or more atoms held together by a covalent bond
What are the 3 types of molecular bonds
Polar
Non Polar
Ionic
Define a Compound
When 2 or more atoms combine they form molecules of a compound
What are the 3 types of mixtures
1. Solute (crystal light)
2. Colloid (Jello)
3. Suspension (blood)
What are the 4 chemical bonds
1. Chemical
2. Ionic
3. Covalent
4. Hydrogen
3 steps of a chemical reaction
1. Reactants react
2. Molecular rearrangement
3. Products form
Define Anabolic
Energy requiring building phase of metabolism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances
Define Catabolic
Process in which living cells break down substances into simpler substances
What does a macro molecule resemble
Pearl Necklace
What are Polymers
monomers that are not strung together
function: Polymers hydrate the cell through hydrolysis breaking the polymer down into monomer units
What are 3 types of polymers
1. Carbohydrates
2. Protein
3. Nucleic Acids
Memorize table 2.14
Dehydration Synthesis, Hydrolysis, Reactions
Define Carbohydrate Structure
CH2O
There is a 2 Hydrogen to 1 Carbon and Oxygen ratio
Give 2 examples of monosaccharides
glucose and dextrose
Two examples of disaccharides
Sucrose and Lactose
What is the function of Carbohydrates
Provide a ready, easily used source of cellular food, which is broken down to form ATP which is stored as fat
Define Lipid
are insoluble in water but dissolve readily in other lipids and organic solvents
Define Triglycerides
neutral fats made up of fatty acids and glycerol 3:1 ratio
What is the difference between Triglycerides and Phospholipids
Phospholipids have 2 tails Tris have 3
Define Steroids
Flat molecules made of 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings.
example: Cholesterol
Define Protein
Serve as building blocks and work as enzymes (catalysts)