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175 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gross anatomy
Study of visible/macroscopic anatomy
Cytology
Study of cells
Histology
Study of tissues
Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function
What a structure can do depends on its specific form.
Levels of Structural Organization
chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Cell
Smallest unit of living things
Tissue
Groups of similar cells that have a common function
Types of Tissue
Epithelium (covering/lining)
Muscle (movement)
Connective (support/protection)
Nervous (rapid internal communication)
Organ
A discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types that performs a specific function for the body
Necessary Life Functions
Maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness/irritability, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth
Metabolism
All chemical reactions that occur within body cells
Organ Systems (name)
Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive
Integumentary System
Forms the external body covering, protects deeper tissues from injury, sit of cutaneous receptors/sweat and oil glands, synthesizes vitamin D

Contains: Hair, skin, nails
Skeletal system
Protects and supports body organs, provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement, stores minerals; blood cells form within bones

Contains: bones, cartilage, joints, ligaments, tendons
Muscular System
Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, expression, maintains posture, produces heat

Contains: muscles
Nervous System
Fast-acting control system of the body, responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands

Contains: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors
Endocrine System
Glands secrete hormones that regulate body cell processes

Contains: Pineal glands, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries/testes
Cardiovascular System
Transport blood, carry nutrients/wastes/oxygen to the body

Contains: heart, blood vessels
Lymphatic System
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood, disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream, houses lymphocytes, involved in immunity

Contains: red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, lymphoid tissue
Respiratory System
Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes CO2

Contains: nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, bronchi
Digestive System
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells, eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces

Contains: oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, accessory structures (teeth, salivary glands, liver, pancreas)
Urinary System
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body, regulates water/electrolytes/pH

Contains: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Reproductive System
Production of offspring.

Male: prostate, penis, testes, scrotum, ductus deferens

Female: mammary glands, ovaries, uterus, vagina, uterine tubes
Organismal Survival Needs
Nutrients, oxygen, water, normal body temperature, atmospheric pressure
Homeostasis
A dynamic state of equilibrium within relatively narrow limits
Components of Homeostatic Control Mechanisms (name)
Receptor, control centre, effector
Receptor
Sensor that monitors the environment and responds to stimuli by sending input to the next component
Control Centre
Determines the set point. Analyzes the input it receives and determines the appropriate course of action.
Effector
Provides the means for the control centre's response to the stimulus
Afferent Pathway
Leads toward the CNS
Efferent Pathway
Leads away from the CNS (output)
Negative Feedback Mechanism (also give examples)
Mechanism which causes the variable to change in a direction opposite to that of the initial change, returning it to its "ideal" value

Examples: regulation of body temperature, regulation of blood sugar levels
Positive Feedback Mechanism (also give examples)
Mechanism that causes the variable to change in the same direction as the initial disturbance, causing it to deviate further from the original value. Also called "cascade."

Example: labour contractions, blood clotting
Anatomical Position
The anatomical reference point for standard body position. The body is erect with the feet only slightly apart, the palms facing forward with the thumbs pointing away from the body.
Superior
Toward the head; above
Inferior
Away from the head end; below
Anterior/Ventral
Toward the front of the body; in front of
Posterior/Dorsal
Toward the back of the body; behind
Medial
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Lateral
Away from the midline of th body; on the outer side of
Intermediate
Located between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Proximal
Closer to the attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Distal
Further from the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Superficial/External
Toward or at the body surface
Deep/Internal
Away from the body surface; more internal
Nasal
nose
Oral
mouth
Cervical
neck
Acromial
the very top point of the shoulder
Axillary
armpit
Abdominal
abdomen
Brachial
upper arm
Antecubital
anterior elbow
Antebrachial
forearm
Pelvic
pelvis
Carpal
wrist
Pollex
thumb
Palmar
palm
Digital
fingers/toes
Pubic
genital
Patellar
anterior knee
Crural
Anterior leg (shin region)
Pedal
foot
Tarsal
ankle
Frontal
forehead
Orbital
eye
Buccal
cheek
Mental
chin
Sternal
breastbone
Thoracic
chest
Mammary
breast
Umbilical
navel
Coxal
hip
Inguinal
groin
Femoral
thigh
Fibular/Peroneal
side of leg
Hallux
big toe
Cephalic
head
Upper Extremity
arm
Manus
hand
Lower Extremity
leg
Otic
ear
Occipital
Back of head and base of skull
Vertebral
spinal column
Scapular
shoulder blade
Dorsum/Dorsal
back
Olecranal
posterior elbow
Lumbar
lower back, lateral to spine (also called "loin")
Sacral
between hips (butt crack and slightly above)
Gluteal
buttocks
Perineal Region
region between anus and external genitalia (pelvic floor)
Popliteal
Posterior knee
Sural
calf
Calcaneal
heel
Plantar
sole of foot
Axial Components (name)
head, neck, trunk
Appendicular Components (name)
limbs, limb origins, pelvis
Sagittal Plane
vertical plane dividing into left and right parts
Median/Midsagittal Plane
sagittal plane through midline of body
Parasagittal Plane
sagittal plane offset from the midline
Frontal/Coronal Plane
vertical plane dividing into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse Plane/Horizontal Plane/Cross-Section
horizontal plane which divides the body into superior and inferior parts
Oblique Section
cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical planes
Dorsal Body Cavity
Protects the organs of the nervous system (brain and spinal cord)

Contains cranial and vertebral cavities
Cranial Cavity
cavity of the skull

contains: brain
Vertebral/Spinal Cavity
cavity within the vertebral column

contains: spinal cord
Ventral Body Cavity
anterior body cavity containing the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities, houses the visceral organs
Viscera
internal organs
Thoracic Cavity
cavity surrounded by the ribs and chest muscles, contains pleural and pericardial cavities
Pleural Cavities
cavities housing the lungs
Superior Mediastinum
cavity containing the esophagus and trachea within the thoracic cavity
Pericardial Cavity/Medial Mediastinum
central thoracic cavity

contains: heart
Diaphragm
thin muscle attached to the inferior boundary of the rib cage, important in breathing, separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Abdominopelvic Cavity
inferior cavity of the body trunk, containing the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Abdominal Cavity
superior cavity of the abdominopelvic cavity

contains: stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, pancreas, large intestines, small intestines, greater omentum, mesentary
Pelvic Cavity
inferior cavity of the abdominopelvic cavity, within the bony pelvis

contains: urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs, rectum
Serous Membrane/Serosa
double-layered membranes within the ventral body cavity
Parietal Serosa
membrane lining the cavity walls
Visceral Serosa
membrane covering the organs in the body cavity
Serous Fluid
lubricating fluid separating the serious membranes which allows the organs to slide without friction
Umbilical Region
centermost abdominopelvic region, surrounding the navel

contains: large & small intestines
Epigastric Region
top-centre abdominopelvic region

contains: stomach, liver, small intestine, pancreas
Hypogastric/Pubic Region
bottom-centre abdominopelvic region

contains: urinary bladder, small intestine, appendix, large intestine
Right Iliac/Inguinal Region
bottom right abdominopelvic region

contains: small intestine, large intestine, appendix
Left Iliac/Inguinal Region
bottom left abdominopelvic region

contains: large & small intestine
Right Lumbar Region
middle right abdominopelvic region

contains: large and small intestines
Left Lumbar Region
middle left abdominopelvic region

contains: large & small intestines
Right Hypochondriac Region
top right abdominopelvic region

contains: liver, gall bladder, small intestine, large intestine
Left Hypochondriac Region
top left abdominopelvic region

contains: large intestine, small intestine, spleen, stomach
Abdominopelvic Regions (name)
epigastric, R/L hypochondriac, umbilical, R/L lumbar, hypogastric/pubic, R/L iliac/inguinal
Abdominopelvic Quadrants (name)
R/L upper, R/L lower
Oral Cavity
mouth cavity

contains: teeth, tongue
Digestive Cavity
cavity containing the digestive organs, open at the anus
Nasal Cavity
cavity within and posterior to the nose, part of the respiratory system passageways
Orbital Cavities
cavities in the skull which house the eyes
Middle Ear Cavities
cavities in the skull medial to the eardrums

contains: the bones involved in transmitting sound vibrations in the ear
Synovial Cavities
joint cavities enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround the freely mobile joints of the body
Cephalad/Cranial
In quadrapeds: toward the head
Caudal
in quadrapeds: toward the tail
Section
A cut along a plane
Peritoneum
serosa lining in the abdominal cavity
Pleura
serosa lining in the pleural cavities
Pericardium
serosa lining in the pericardial cavity
Thymus
irregular mass of glandular tissue overlying the heart
Heart
medial oval structure enclosed within the pericardium
Lungs
inflatable ovoid structures flanking the heart
Trachea
tubelike "windpipe" running medially down the throat
Bronchi
two passageways that plunge laterally into the tissue of the lungs
Esophagus
the part of the digestive system that transports food from the pharynx (throat) to the stomach
Stomach
curved organ important in food digestion and temporary food storage
Greater Omentum
superficial structure of the abdominopelvic cavity, an extension of the peritoneum that covers the abdominal viscera
Small Intestine
digestive "tube" connected to the stomach and ending just before the saclike cecum
Large Intestine
large, muscular tube connected to the small intestine and ending at the anus
Cecum
initial portion of the large intestine, connected to the small intestine
Rectum
terminal part of the large intestine continuous with the anal canal
Anus
opening of the digestive tract through the anal canal to the exterior of the body
Mesentery
apronlike serous membrane which suspends many of the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity; contains many blood vessels and large fat deposits
Pancreas
diffuse gland which rests dorsal to and in the mesentery between the first portion of the small intestine and the stomach (posterior to the stomach)
Spleen
dark red organ curving around the left lateral side of the stomach; considered part of the lymphatic system and called the "RBC graveyard"
Liver
large, brown-red, most superior organ in the abdominal cavity located directly beneath the diaphragm
Kidneys
bean-shaped retroperitoneal organs
Adrenal Glands
large endocrine glands that sit astride the superior margin of each kidney
Ureter
tube running from the indented region of a kidney to the urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder
the sac that serves as a reservoir for urine, located in the pelvic cavity/pubic region
Inferior Vena Cava
large vein that returns blood to the heart from the lower regions of the body (runs up between the kidneys)
Descending Aorta
largest artery of the body, located deep to the inferior vena cava (runs between the kidneys), which carries blood away from the heart down the midline of the body
Scrotum
sac covering the testes
Testes
oval organ surrounded by the scrotum in which sperm are formed
Ductus Deferens/Vas Deferens
slender tube which carries sperm from the testes superiorly into the abdominal cavity and joins with the urethra
Penis
male external reproductive organ, extends from the bladder to the ventral body wall
Uterus
pear-shaped single-chamber organ which lies against the dorsal body wall, inferior to the bladder; location of embryonic/fetal growth
Ovary
small, oval structure at the end of the uterine tube which houses the ova
Vagina
region leading to the body exterior, continuous with the uterus
Vaginal Orifice
external vaginal opening
Uterine Tubes
tubes which attach the superior aspect of the uterus to the ovaries