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45 Cards in this Set

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Astrocytes
Most abundant glial cells that are star-shaped.
Axon
Arises from a cone-shaped region of the cell body and then narrows to form a slender process that stays uniform in diameter for the rest of its length.
Axon Collaterals
Branches of axon along its length. Extend from the axon at more or less right angles.
Axonal Terminals
Bulbous distal endings of the telodendria.
Dendrites
Short, tapering, diffusely branching extensions.
Ependymal Cells
Cells that range in shape from squamous to columnar, and many are ciliated.
Gray Matter
Gray area of the CNS; Contains cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers of neurons.
Group A fibers
Mostly somatic sensory and motor fibers serving the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints.
Group B and C fibers
Lightly myelinated fibers of intermediate diameter; have the smallest diameter and are unmyelinated.
Microglia
Small ovoid cells with relatively long "thorny" processes.
Myelin Sheath
Whittish, fatty, segmented sheath of nerve fibers.
Nerve Fiber
Any long axon.
Neurofibrils
Bundles of intermediate filaments.
Neruoglia
The supporting cells in the CNS.
Nissl Bodies
Rough ER that stains darkly with basic dyes and is obviously microscopically.
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in the sheath between Schwann cells.
Satellite Cells
Flat cells that surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia and play some role in controlling the chemical environment of neurons.
Schwann Cells
Surround and form myelin sheaths around the larger nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system.
Synapses
Unique junction that mediates the transfer of information from one neuron to the next or from a neuron to an effector cell.
Telodendria
Terminal branches.
White Matter
White substance of the central nervous system; myelinated nerve fibers.
Brain
The powerhouse of the human body.
Cerebellum
Processes inputs received from the cerebral motor cortex, various brain stem nuclei, and sensory receptors to provide precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction.
Cerebral Cortex
Enables all qualities associated with consciousness.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Forms a liquid cushion that gives buoyancy to the CNS organs.
Diencephalon
Forms the central core of the forebrain and is surrounded by the cerebral hemispheres.
Hypothalmus
Caps the top of the brain stem and forms the inferolateral walls of the third ventricle.
Medulla Oblongata
The most inferior part of the brain stem.
Meninges
Three connective tissue membranes that lie just external to the CNS organs.
Thalmus
Egg-shaped; Makes up 80% of the diencephalon and forms the superolateral walls of the third ventricle.
The Pons
Bulging brain stem region wedged between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata.
Chemoreceptors
Receptors that respond to chemicals in solutions.
Exteroceptors
Receptors that are sensitive to stimuli arising outside the body.
Interoceptors
Receptors that respond to stimuli arising from within the body.
Mechanoreceptors
Receptors that generate nerve impulses when they are deformed by mechanical forces.
Nociceptors
Receptors that respond to potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain.
Photoreceptors
Receptors that respond to light energy.
Perception
Interpretation of the meaning of the stimulus.
Proprioceptors
Receptors that respond to internal stimuli, but there location is much more restricted.
Sensation
Awareness of the stimulus.
Thermoreceptors
Receptors that are sensitive to temperature changes.
ANS works primarily with smooth and cardiac muscles whereas the PNS works more with skeletal muscle.
Characteristics of the PNS and ANS?
1.Autonomic
2.Emotional
3.Body Temperature
4.Regulation of Water Balance
5.Regulation of Food Intake
6.Sleep and Awake Pattern
7.Control of Endocrine System
7 Functions of the hypothalmus?
Sympathetic is most active in high-stress situations. Parasympathetic is most active in non-stressful situations.
Difference between sympathetic and parasympathetic?
Cerebrum
The cerebral hemispheres and the structures of the diencephalon.