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72 Cards in this Set

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Covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts; also forms glands?
Epithelial tissue
Protects and supports the body and its organs. Various types bind organs together; stores energy reserves as fat and helps provide immunity to disease-causing organisms?
Connective tissue
generates the physical force needed to make body structures move?
Muscular tissue
detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outside the body and responds by generating action potentials (nerve impulses) that help maintain homeostasis?
Nervous tissue
Which is NOT one of the three primary germ layers?
A. middlederm
C. endoderm
A. middlederm
Epithelial tissue develop from what germ layer?
All connective tissue and most muscle tissue derive from what germ layer?
Nervous tissue develops from what germ layer?
A group of similar cells that usually have a common embryonic origin and function together to carry out specialized activities?
What are the four basic types of tissues that make up the human body?
Contact points between the plasma membranes of tissue cells?
Cell junctions
most epithelial and some muscle and nerve cells contain these.
Consists of web-like strands of transmembrane proteins that fuse the outer surfaces of adjacent plasma membranes together?
Tight junction
ziplock bag cells of epithelial that lines bladder have tight junctions so substances don't leak into blood or surrounding tissue.
Contains plaque, a dense layer of proteins on the inside of the plasma membrane that attaches to both membrane protiens and to microfilaments of the cytoskeleton?
Adherens junctions
Adherens junctions often form extensive zones called
_______ because they encircle the cell similar to the way a belt encircles a waist?
adhesion belt
The plasma membranes of this particular junction are not fused together as in tight junctions but are separated by a very narrow intercellular gap?
Gap junctions
allow the cells in a tissue to communicate w/ one another
Consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single or multiple layers?
Epithelial tissue
The ______surface of an epithelial cell faces the body surface, a body cavity, the interior space of an organ, or a tubular duct that receives cell secretions?
Apical (free) surface
may contain cilia or microvilli
The ____surface of an epithelial cell adhere to extracellular materials as the basement membrane?
basal surface
A thin extracellular layer that commonly consists of two layers?
basement membrane
functions as a point of attachment and support for the underlying epithelial tissue.
Which is NOT a layer of the basement membrane?
A. basal lamina
B. reticular lamina
C.cement lamina
C.cement lamina
is closer to-and secreted by-the epithelial cells. It contains proteins such as collagen and laminin?
basal lamina
Lamina= thin layer
Is closer to the underlying connective tissue and contains fibrous proteins produced by connective tissue cells called fibroblasts.
reticular lamina
Epithelial tissue has its own nerve supply but is what?
Avascular (lacks its own blood supply)
Forms the outer covering of the skin and some internal organs; forms the inner lining of blood vessels, ducts, body cavities?
Covering and lining epithelium
also forms the interior of the respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems. <<COVERS AND LINES>>
Makes up the secreting portion of the glands such as the thyroid gland, adrenal, and sweat glands?
glandular epithelium
A single layer of cells that functions in diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion and absorption?
Simple epithelium
Appears to have multiple layers of cells?
psuedostratified epithelium
consists of two or more layers of cells that protect underlying tissues in locations where there is considerable wear and tear?
stratified epithelium
Stratum = layer
Are arranged like floor tiles and are thin, which allows for the rapid passage of substances?
Squamous cells
squamous= flat
Are shaped like cubes or hexagons; function in either secretion or absorption?
cuboidal cells
Shaped like columns, and protect underlying tissues; amy have cilia or micrvilli, often are specialized in secretion and absorption?
columnar cells
Change shape,from flat to cuboidal as organs such as urinary bladder stretch and collapse?
Consists of a single layer of flat cells; present at sites whre processes of filtration occurs?
simple squamous epithelium
descr. single layer
location. lines heart
function. filtration, diffusion, osmosis
The simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels is known as what?
endo=within, thelium=covering
Description= single layer of cube-shaped cells, functoin= secretoin and absorption?
simple cuboidal epithelium
Description=single layer of nonciliated-like cells, contain goblet cells, function=secretion and absorption?
nonciliated simple columnar epithelium
contain microvilli at apical surface and goblet cells (secrete mucus)
Description= Contain columnar epithelial cells with cilia at the apical surface, function= moves mucus and other substances?
ciliated simple columnar epithelium
Location=keratinized and/or nonkeratinized, function=protection
stratified squamous epithelium
Stratified squamous epithelium exists in what two forms?
1. keratinized
2. nonkeratinized
Description= all cells are attached to basement membrane but not all reach the apical surface, function= secretion and movement of mucus by ciliary action?
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Where would you find nonkeratinized stratified epithelium?
lining the mouth and esophagus
remains moist
Description=appearance is variable, can range from squamous to cuboidal, locatoin=urinary bladder, function=permits distension?
transitional epithelium
May consist of a single cell or a group of cells that secrete substances into ducts, onto a surface, or into the blood?
All glands of the body are classified as either..
A. little or big
B. avascular or vascular
C. exocrine or endocrine
C. exocrine or endocrine
The secretions of endocrine glands diffuse directly into the bloodstream without flowing through a duct. these secretions are called what?
secrete their products into ducts that empty onto the surface of a covering and lining epithelium cell?
exocrine gland
example= skin surface; sweat
Most exocrine galnds of the body are classified as what type of glands?
A. tubular
B. merocrine
C. Apocrine
B. merocrine
forms product, then discharges it through a duct
Accumulate their secretory product at the apical surface of the secreting cell?
Apocrine glands
portion of the cell pinches off from the rest of the cell to release the secretion.
accumulate a secretory product in their cytosol; as cell matures it ruptures and becomes the secretory product. Sloughed off cell is replaced by a new cell?
holocrine gland
example= pimple or oil gland
discharge, then die
One of the most abundant and widely distributed in the body?
connective tissue
The material located b/t its widely spaced cells, consists of protien fibers and ground substance?
extracellular matrix
connective tissue is highly what?
A. pliable
B. contagious
C. vascular
C. Vascular
An immature cell would have the ending what?; meaning "to bud or sprout"?
A mature cell would have what ending?
Usually the most numerous; migrate through connective tissue, secreting the fibers and ground substance of the extracellular matrix?
secrete FIBERS..FIBROblasts
Develop from monocytes, a type of WBC; capable of engulfing bacteria and cellular debris by phagocytosis?
engulfing= eating= phages
Plasma cells secrete what?
an important part of bodies immune response
Produce heparin and histamine?
mast cells
Also called fat cells?
the component of a connective tissue b/t the cells and fibers may be fliud, semifliud, gelatinous or calcified?
ground substance
Name the three types of fibers that are embedded in the extracellular matrix b/t the cells?
1.collagen fibers
2.elastic fibers
3.reticular fibers
Very strong;consist of the protein collagen?
Collagen fibers
found especially in bone cartilage, tendons and ligaments
Consists of the protein elastin, have ability to return to their original shape after being stretched?
elastic fibers
plentiful in skin, blood vessel walls and lung tissue
Strong bands of tissue; form part of the stroma (framework) of tissue?
reticular fibers
One example of embryonic connective tissue found almost exclusively in the embryo is?
tissue from which all other connective tissue eventually arises.
AN example of embryonic connective tissue fund mainly in the umbilical cord of the fetus; also known as Wharton's jelly?
mucous connective tissue
What are the five types of mature connective tissue?
One of the most widley distributed connective tissues in the body, contains several types of cells, all three types of fibers?
areolar connective tissue
combined w/ adipose tissue, areolar connective tissue forms the __________ layer?
subcutaneous layer
attaches the skin to underlying tissues and organs.
Is found wherever areolar tissue is located?
Adipose tissue
Most adipose tissue in adults is?
white adipose tissue
a type of adipose tissue that pobtains a darker color from its rich blood supply, is widespread in the fetus and infants?
brown adipose tissue (BAT)