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50 Cards in this Set

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I. Olfactory
Purely sensory; carries impulses for the sense of smell
II. Optic
Purely sensory; carries impulses for vision
III. Oculomotor
supplies motor fibers to our of the six muscles that direct the eyelid; and to the internal eye muscles controlling lese shape and pupil size
IV. Trochlear
Supplies motor fibers for one external eye muscle (superior oblique)
V. Trigeminal
conducts sensory impulses from the skin of the ace and mucosa of the nose and mouth; also contains motor fibers that activate the chewing muscles
VI. Abducens
Supplies motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscle, which rolls the eye laterally
VII. Facial
Activates the muscles of the facial expression and the lacrimal and salivary glands; carries sensory impulses from the taste buds of anterior tongue
VII. Vestibulocochlear
Purely sensory; vestibular branch transmits impulses for the sense of balance, and cochlear branch transmits impulses for the sense of hearing
IX. Glossopharyngeal
Supplies motor fibers to the pharynx (throat) that promote swallowing and saliva production; carries sensory impulses from taste buds of the posterior tongue and from pressure receptors of that carotid artery
X. Vagus
Fibers carry sensory impulses from and motor impulses to the pharynx, larynx, and the abdominal and thoracic viscera; most motor fibers are parasympathetic fibers that promote digestive activity and help regulate heart activity
X1. Accessory
Mostly motor fibers that activate the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
XII. Hypoglossal
Motor fibers control tongue movements; sensory fibers cary impulses rom the tongue
Central Nervous System (CNS)
consists of the brain and spinal cord, which occupy the dorsal body cavity and act as the integrating and command centers of the nervous system. Interprets incoming sensory info. and issues instructions based on past experience and current conditions
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
part of the nervous system outside the CNS. Consists mainly of the nerves that extend rom the brain and spinal cord.
Spinal Nerves
carry impulses from and to the spinal
cranial nerves
carry impulses to and from the brain
sensory (afferent) division
consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses to the cns from sensory receptors
motor (efferent) division
carries impulses from the CNS to effector organs, the muscles and glands. These impulses actgivate muscles and glands; they effect a motor response
somatic nervous system
allows us to consciously, or voluntarily, control our skeletal muscles. Also known as voluntary nervous system
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
regulates events that are automatic, or involuntary, such as the activity of smooth and cardiac muscles and glands. Also called the involuntary nervous system.
neuroglia
nerve glue. gerally suypports, insulates, and protects neurons. (Glia)
glia
Neuroglia. Consists of Astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes
astrocytes
star shaped cells that account for nearly half of neural tissue. Cling to neurons, bracing them and anchoring them to the nutrient supply lines (the blood capillaries)
microglia
spiderlike phagocytes that dispose of debris, including dead brain cells and bacteria
ependymal cells
line the cavities of the brain and the spinal cord. Helps to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid.
oligodendrocytes
glia that wrap their flat extensions tightly around the nerve fiers, producing myelin sheaths
myelin sheaths
fatty insulating coverings
schwann cells
form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers that are found in the PNS
satellite cells
act as protective, cushioning cells
Nissl substance
the rough ER in neurons
neurofibrils
important in maintaining cell shape
dendrites
neuron processes that convey incoming messages toward the cell body
axons
generate nerve impulses and typically conduct them away from the cell body
axon terminals
contain hundreds of tiny vesicles, or membranous sacs, that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters
synaptic cleft
a gap that separates each axonal terminal from the next neuron
white matter
consists of dense collections o myelinated fibers
gray matter
contains mostly unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies
seonsory (afferent) neurons
neurons carrying impulses rom sensory receptors to the CNS
motor (efferent) neureons
neurons carrying impulses from the CNS to the viscera and/or muscles and glands. Their cell bodies are always located int he CNS
association neurons (interneurons)
connect the motor and sensory neurons in neural pathways. Cell bodies always located in the CNS
multipolar neuron
if there are several processes extending from the cell body, the neuron is multipolar
bipolar neurons
neurons with two processes-- an axon and a dendrite. Rare in adults, found only in some special sense organs (eye, ear) where they act as sensory receptor cells.
unipolar neurons
have a single process emerging from the cell body however it is very short and divides almost imediately into proximal (central) and distal (peripheral) fibers.
irritability
the ability to respond to a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse
conductivity
the ability to transmit the impulse to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
polarized
there are fewer positive ions sitting on the inner face of the neuron's plasma membrane than there are on its outer fface in the tissue fluid that surrounds it.
depolarization
the inward rush of sodium ions which changes the polarity of the neuron's membrane
action potential
an electrical event occurring when a stimulus of suficient intensity is applied to a neuron or muscle cell, allowing sodium ions to move into the cell and reverse the polarity
repolarization
the outflow of positive ions from tthe cell which restores the electrical conditions at the membrane to the polarized, or resting, state
cerebral hemispheres
most superior part of the brain and together are a good deal larger than the other three brain regions combined. Enclose and obscure most of the brain stem