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108 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
enzymes are carbs, proteins, or lipids
proteins
how do enzymes speed up reactions?
by lowering the activation energy needed to start a reaction
two types of metabolic reactions
anabolic-put together
catabolic-take apart
_____ provides the substances needed for growth and repair
anabolism
removing a molecule of water to join two smaller molecules
dehydration snythesis
e.g. of substances constructed via dehydration snythesis
polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins
what forms a fat?
a glycerol and fatty acids bond
bond between two amino acids is a
peptide bond
two bound amino acids form a
dipeptide
many amino acids bound together makes a
polypeptide
enzymes usually end in what?
-ase
why doesn't the body need a lot of enzymes?
because they work over n over n over n over until they are denatured
wherein a molecule of water is inserted into a polymer which is split into two smaller molecules; separation by water
hydrolysis
these control the rates of all the metabolic reactions of the cell
enzymes
enzymes are called
catalysts
enzymes work in (low, high) qualities
low
each enzyme is specific acting on only one ________. this is called the ____ & ________ hypothesis
substrate; lock and key
reaction occurs when the active sites on the ____ combine with the _____
enzyme; substrate
the speed depends on
the number of enzyme and substrate molecules available
enzymes can be denatured by:
heat, pH extremes, chemicals, electricity, radiation, etc
energy is the
capacity to do work
common forms of energy include
heat, light, sound, electifcal, mechanical, and chemical
release of chemical energy
cellular respiration
when does the release of chemical energy in the cell usually occur
through the oxidation of glucose
burning glucose requires
energy to start the process
cellular respiration by-products are
co2, heat, h20
ATP
adenine triphosphate; chain of three phosphates
up to __ molecules of ATP are produced for each molecule of glucose oxidized
38
where is the energy store in ATP
the last phosophate bond
first part of cellular respiration is the splitting of glucose called
glycolysis
glycolysis forms two 3-c molecules called
pyruvates or pyruvic acids
pyruvic acids are used in the _________ of the cell
mitochondira
the break down of glucose
glycolysis
the only type of fermentation in humans?
lactic acid fermentation
where does fermentation take place
cytoplasm
lysis means
to burst or split
breaking glygoen into glucose is called_______ and happens in the ___
glycogenolysis and happens in the liver
in anaerobic respiration u make ______ATPs but use ___ so the net gain is ___
4;2;2
aerobic respiration produces ____ ATPs
34-36
the maxiumum ammount of ATPs the body can get from one cell is
38 ATPs
_____ is needed for aerobic respiration
oxygen
aerobic respiration occurs in the
mitochonria
the final products of glucose oxidation are
carbon dioxide, water, and energy
everything in the body can be formed into
glucose
a sequence of enzyme-controlled reactions is called a
metabolic pathway
the rate of a metabolic pathway is determined by a _______ _______ responsible for one of its steps
regulatory enzyme
a _________ enzyme is the first step in a series
rate-limiting
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
a portion of DNA that contains the genetic information for making a single protein
gene
sides of DNA are made of alternating
sugars and phosphates
what connects the double helix in DNA
nitrogren bases
name the pairs of nitrogren bases in DNA
adenine-thymine
cytosine-guanine
method of storing information for protein synthesis is
the genetic code
copy and transfer information to the cytoplasm where proteins are manufactured
RNA molecules
single stranded
RNA
differences between RNA/DNA (at least two)
dna is double stranded and dna contains thymine which is replaced by uracil in rna
each ___ ___ corresponds to a triplet of DNA nucleotides
amino acid
a triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA is called
a codon
does messenger RNA stay in the nucleus?
no it goes to the ribosomes, the sites of protein synthesis
construction of protein through process called
translation
triplet of nucleotides in transferRNA is called
an anticodon
_____ RNA brings amino acids to the _______ RNA and puts them in sequence through a process called _______ to produce _____
tranfer brings to messenger through translation to make proteins
name of the enzyme that unzips DNA to replicate
DNA polymerace
name of the enzyme that unzips DNA to make RNA
RNA polymerace
the taxi cab in DNA/RNA
transfer RNA
there are _ different amino acids
20
there are __ different anticodons
64
glycolysis happens during which kind of respiration
anaerobic (and therefore also aerobic)
one transfer RNA has to stay at site of translation so that
the chain doesnt float away
the ___ contains enzymes needed to join the amino acids together
ribosome
each DNA molecule consists of one _ strand and one _ strand
parental strand and one newlysnythesized strand
the liver takes of the -NH2 (amine group) and it becomes waste (urea)
diamination
diamination happens before making
pyruvates
production of glucose from non-carbs
glyconeogenesis
break down of fats
lipolysis
breakdown of fatty acids
beta oxidation
these smell fruity
ketones
what kind of people go throu beta oxidation a lot
anorexics and diabetics
the proteins that control the reactions of metabolism are
enzymes
the metabolic process that synthesizes materials needed for cellular growth is called
anabolism
the metabolic process that breaks down complex molecules into simpler ones is called
catabolism
the process by which two molecules are joined together to form a more complex molecule is called
dehydration synthesis
glycerol and fatty acids become bonded to form water and
fat molecules
amino acid molecules are joinued by a peptide bond to form water and
a protein
the process by which water is added to a complex molecule to break it down
hydrolysis
c12h12o11 + h20 = c6h12o6 + c6h12o6
hydrolysis
enzymes are composed of
proteins
a substance that decreases the amount of energy necessary to being a chemical reaction is an
enzyme
an enzyme acts only on a particular substance called a
substrate
an enzyme's ability to recognize the substance upon which it iwll act seems to be based on
structural formula
the speed of an enzyme-controlled reaction depends upon the number of _______ and ________ present and the _______ of that enzyme
enzyme and substrate molecules present and the concentration of the enzyme
a substance needed to convert an inactive form of an enzyme to an active form is called
a coenzyme
the form of energy utilized by most cellular processes is
chemical
the process by which energy is released in the cell is called
oxidation
what element is needed for aerobic respiration
oxygen
name the storage place for the energy released by cellular respiration
ATP
carbohydrate must be converted to a(n) _________ to be available as an energy source
simple sugar
fat contain (more,less) energy per gram compared to carbohydrates
less
if proteins are to be used as an energy source, they undergo a process in the liver called
deamination
what element in repmoved in the process of deamination
nitrogen
the rate at which a metabolic pathway functions is determined by a(n) ______ ________ that is present in limited quality
regulatory enzyme
the function of RNA is to
control the bonding of amino acids
an-
without
ana-
up
cata-
down
de-
undoing
mut-
change
zym-
ferment