Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/688

Click to flip

688 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
(1) are the structural units of all livings things
cells
Who was Robert Hooke?
first observed plants cells
NAME
first observed plants cells
Robert Hooke
Whao was Mathisa Schlieden and Theordor Schwann?
insisted that all livings things are composed of cells
Who is Rudolf Virchow?
said that cells arise from other cells
NAME
said that other arise from other cells
Rudolf Virchow
What is theory of sponateous generation?
says that organisisms arise spontaneously from garbage or other nonliving material
NAME
says that organisms arise sponaneously from garbage or other nonliving material
sponateous generation
What are the four concepts of the cell theory?
(1)a cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms (2)the activity of an organism depends on both the individial and the collective activities of its cells (3) According to the principle of complementarity, the biochemical activites of the cell are dictated by their specific subcellar activies (4)Continituity of life has a cellular basis
What is the priniciple of complementarity?
states that the biochemical activties of cell are dictated by their specific subcellular structures
NAME
states that the biochemical activities of the cell are dictated by their specific subcellular structures
priniciple of complementarity
A cell's shape reflects its (1)
function
A cell's (1) reflects its function
shape
What are the three main parts of the human cell?
(1)plasma membrane (2)cytoplasm (3)nucleus
What is the plasma membrane?
a fragile barrier that is the outer boundary of the cell
NAME
is a fragile barrier that is the outer boundary of the cell
plasma membrane
What is the cytoplasm?
the intracellular fluid that is packed w organelles
NAME
is intracellular fluid that is packed w organelles
cytoplasm
NAME
controls cellular activities and lies near that cell's center
nucleus
NAME
defines the extent of a cell therby separting two of the body's major fluid compartments
plasma membrane
What are the body's two major fluid compartments?
(1)intracellular fluid (2)extracellular fluid
What intracellular fluid?
fluid w/in the cell
NAME
is fluid w/in the cell
intracellular fluid
What is extracellular fluid?
is fluid outside the cell
NAME
if fluid outside the cell
extracellular fluid
T or F
nearly all cellular organelles are enclosed in a membrane
True
Diagram the sturcture of the plasma membrane?
p 66
What are the function's of the plasma membrane?
(1)external cell barrier (2)transport (3)mantians a resting potiental (4)important in cell to cell regonization
NAME
functions include a external barrier, transport, mantians a resting poteintal, and important in cell to cell regonization
plasma membrane
NAME
is the cellular region btwn the nuclear and plasma membrane
cytoplasm
What does the cytoplasm consist of?
cystol (2)organelles (3)inclusions
(1) consisits of cystol, organelles, and inclusions
cytoplasm
NAME
is the powerhous of the cell and the site of ATP syntheis
Mitochondria
NAME
is the site of ATP synthesis
mitochondria
What is the mitochondria?
ATP synthesis
What is Ribosomes?
the sites of protein synthesis
NAME
are the sites of protien synthesis
ribosomes
What is the rough er?
has ribosomes
NAME
has ribosomes
rough er
NAME
does not have ribosomes
smooth er
NAME
is the site of lipid and steriod snythesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detoxification
smooth er
What is smooth er?
is the site of lipid and steriod synthesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detroxification
NAME
are the sites of intracelluar digestion
lysomes
What are lysomes?
are the sites of intracellular digestion
What are peroxisomes?
detoxify a number of toxic substances
NAME
detoxify a lot of toxic substances
peroxisomes
What are mircotubles made up of ?
tublin
NAME
are made up of tublin
mircotubles
what are mircofilaments made up of?
actin
NAME
are made up of actin
mircofilaments
what are centrioles?
are nine triplets of microtubles
NAME
are nine triplets of microtubles
centrioles
What is the fluid mosiac model?
depicts the plasma membrane as a thin double layer of lipid molecules w protein molecules dispersed in it
NAME
depicts the plasma membrane as a thin double layer of lipid molecules w protein molecules dispersed in it
fluid mosiac model
(1) forms the fabric of the membrane
lipid bilayer
Each phosopholipid has a (1) and (2)
(1)charged hydrophilic head (2)uncharged nonpolor hydrophobic tail
What does hydrophillic mean?
water loving
NAME
means water loving
hydrophillic
What does hydrophobic?
fear of water
NAME
means fear of water
hydrophobic
T or F
the self-orienting property of phospholipids encourages biolgiocal membranes to self-assembly into closed, generally spherical, structures and to reseal themselves quickly when torn
True
What are some functions of membrane proteins?
(1)transport (2)enzymatic activity (3)receptors for signal transduction (4) intercellular joining (5) cell-cell recoginition (6)attachement to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix
The majority of membrane phosphilipds are (1)
Unsaturated
What are glycoplipids?
phospholipids w attached sugar groups
NAME
are phospholipids w attached sugar groups
glycoplipids
What are lipid rafts?
dynamic assemblies of satuarted phospholipids associated w unique lipids called sphingolipids and lots of cholesterol
NAME
dynamic assmeblies of saturated phospholipds assocaited w unique lipids called sphinogolipids and lots of cholestral
lipid raft
What are the two types of protiens in the membrane?
(1)integral (2)peripheral
What are integral proteins?
are protiens firmly inserted into the lipid bilayer
NAME
are responsible for most of the speacilized membrane functions
protiens
NAME
are protiens firmly inserted into lipid bilayer
inegral protiens
What are transmembrane protiens?
protiens that span the entire width of the memrbane and protude on both sides
NAME
are proteins that span the entire width of the membrane and protude on both sides
transmembrane proteins
Most integral protiens are (1)
transmembrane protiens
T or F
all integral protiens have both hydrophobic and hydrophillic regions
True
transmembrane protiens are mainly inovled in (1)
transport
NAME
when protiens act as receptors for hormones or other chemical messengers and relay messages to the cell interior
signal transduction
What is signal transduction?
when protiens act as receptors for hormones or other chemical messengers and relay messages to the cell interior
What is the function of the cystol?
solution/space
NAME
the function is soultion and space
cystol
What is the funciton of the rough er?
make and transport protiens
NAME
their function is make and transport protiens
rough er
What is the function of smooth er?
transport protiens
NAME
their function is to transport proitens
smooth er
What is the function of the nucleus?
cell control and storage of gentic info
NAME
their function is cell control and genitic info
nucleus
What is the function of the nucleolus?
translate genes for protien manifucturing
NAME
function is for the translating genes and protien manifucturing
nucleolus
What is the function of the nuclear membrane?
allow entry and egress to nucleus
NAME
thier function is to allow entry and egress to the nucleus
nuclear membrane
What is the function of the plasma membrane?
control entry and egress of cells
NAME
their function includes the control and entry and egress of the cell
plasma membrane
What is the function of the golgi Apparatus?
package protiens
NAME
thier function includs package protiens
Golgi Apparatus
What is the function of the mitochondria?
produce ATP
NAME
produces ATP
mitochondria
What is the function of the lysosome?
waste disposal
NAME
function in waste disposal
lyososome
What is the function of Vacuole in plants?
water storage
NAME
functions in water storage
vacuole in plants
What is the function of amyloplast?
starch storage
NAME
function in starch storage
amyloplast
What is the function of Pinocytotic?
entry of large molecules
NAME
function in the entry of large molecules
Pinocytotic
What is the function of centrioles during cell division only?
control cell division
NAME
function in controling cell division
centrioles
What is the function of chloroplast?
make glucose
NAME
function in making glucose from light energy
chloroplast
What is the function of the cell wall in plants?
structure and strength
NAME
function in struture and strength
cell wall in plants
What is the cytoskelton made up of? (2)
(1)microfilaments and (2)mircotubules
NAME
is made up of mircofilaments and mircotubules
cytoskelton
What is the function of the cytoskelton?
cell strucutre and molecule transport
NAME
functions in cell structure and molecule transport
cytoskelton
What the different types of vesicles?(4)
(1)lysosme (2)vacuole (3)amyloplast (4)Pinocytotic
What are glycolipids?
lipids w sugar
What are glycoprotiens?
protiens w sugar
Fill in the blanks of the diagram of the cell
p 65
Fill in the blanks fo the diagram of the plasma membrane
p 66
What are peripheral protiens
proteins not embeded in the lipid-bilyaer but loosely attached
NAME
are protiens that are not embeded in the lipid bilayer but loosely attached
peripheral protiens
What does glycocalyx mean?
sugar covering
NAME
means sugar covering
Glycococalyx
What is teh Glycocalyx?
is the fuzzy sticky carb rich area at the cell surface that allows the differ cells stick to each other
NAME
is a fuzzy sticky carb rich area that allows for differ cells to stick to each other
Glycolcalyx
What happens when a cell becomes canerous?
there are definite changes in the glycocalyx of the cancer cell-- allowing it keep ahead of the body's immune system
NAME
this is indicated when the cell's glycocalyx is continouslay chagnging-therefore, allowing it to keep ahead of the body's immune system
cancerous cells
(1)is like olive oil
the plasma membrane
What are mircovilli?
are minute fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane that project from a free, or exposed cell surface
NAME
are minute fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane that project from a free or exposed cell surface
microbilli
Where are mircovilli often found?
on the surface of the kindney or intestines
What are three factors that bind cells togehter? (3)
(1)Glycoprotins in the glycoalyx act as an adhesive (2) wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent cells fit together in a tongue and groove fashion (3)speacial membrane junactions are formed
What is a tight junction?
a series of intergral protiens in the plasma membrane fused together forming an impermeable juntion the encricles the cell
NAME
is a series of integral protiens in the plasma membrane fused together forming an impermeable junction that encircles the cell
tight junction
(1)this junction, prevents molecules from passing through extracellualar spcae such as how in btwn epitheal cells and digestive ennzymes keep microbes and digestive enzymes out of the intestines
tight junction
Give a ex of a tight junction
btwn eptiheal cells and digestive enzymes--keeps out mircobes and digestive enzymes out of the intestines
What are desmosomes?
are anchoring junctions
NAME
are anchoring junctions
desmosomes
What are the different types of cell junctions? (3)
(1)tight (2)desmosomes (3)gap
What does one mean by anchoring junction?
mechanical couplings scattered like rivets alongs the sides of abutting cells to prevent separation
NAME
is the mechanical coupling scattered like rivets along the sides of abutting cells to prevent separation
anchoring junction or desmosomes
Where are desmosomes the most abundant?
tissues subject to great mechanical stress
NAME
are most abundant in tissues that are subject to great mechanical stress
desmosomes
What is a gap junction?
is communicating junction taht allows chemical substances to pass btwn adjacent cells
NAME
is a communicating junction that allows chemical substances to pass btwn adjacent cells
gap junction
Where are gap junctions present?
in electrically exictable tissues such as the heart and smooth muscles
NAME
are present in electrically exictable tissues such as the heart and the smooth muscles
gap junctions
Cells are bathed in extracellular fluid called (1)that is derived from the blood
interstitial fluid
What is interstitial fluid?
an extracellular fluid derived from our blood that baths our cells
To remain health all of our cells must extracts nutrienst from the (1)at specfic times
extracellular fluid
Tell which junction are which
pg 69
the plasma mebrane has (1)
selctive permeable barrier
(1) has a selective permeable barrier
plasma membrane
What is selectively permearble?
means that it allows some substances to pass throught the membrane well not others
NAME
means that it allows some substances to pass through the membrane well not others
selectively permearble
What happens to burn patients?
the selective permeability of their's cells becomes void allowing fluids, protiens, and ions to weep from the dead and damaged cells
NAME
in these patients the seletive permeability of their cells becomes void allowing for protiens, fluids, and ions to weap from the dead and damaged skin
burn patients
What are the two ways that substances move throught the plasma membrane?
(1)activly (2)passivly
What is passive transport?
when substances cross the membrane w out any using energy
NAME
is when substance pass through the membrane w out using any energy
passive transport
What is active transport?
is when substances pass through the membrane w the help of ATP
NAME
is when substances pass through the membrane w the help of ATP
active transport
What are the two different types of pasive transport?
(1)diffuision (2) filtration
Diffusion and filtration are both exs of (1)
passive transport
What is diffusion?
is the tendency of molecules or ions to scatter evenly throughout the environment
NAME
is the tendency of molecules or ions to scatter evenly throughout the environent
diffusion
Molecules allows moves from areas of (1) concentration or areas of (2) concentration
(1)higher (2) lower
Molecules diffuse (1)concentration gradient
along or down
What influences the speed of diffusion? (2)
(1)size of the molecules (2) temperature
Bc of the (1) the plasma membrane is a physical barrier to free diffusion
hydrophobic core
When will a molecule diffuse through the membrane?
if it is (1)lipid souble (2)small enough to pass through the membrane channels (3)assisted by a carrier molecule
What is simple diffusion?
the unassisted diffusion of lipid souble or very small particles
NAME
is the unassisted diffusion of lipid souble or very small particles
simple diffusion
Which substances can be moved by simple diffusion?
nonpolor and lipid souble substances
Oxygen is continously diffusing from (1) into the (2)
(1)blood (2)cells
What is facilated diffusion?
is in which the transported substance either binds to the protien carriers in the membrane is carried off or moces through water filled protien channels
NAME
is in which the transported substance either binds to the protien carrier in the membrane and is carried across or moves through water filled protiens
facilated diffusion
What is permease or carrier protiens
is a transmembrane integral priteins that shows specificty for molecules of certian polar substances or class of substances that are to large to pass though membrane channels
NAME
is transmembrane intergral protiens that show speciticty for molecules of certain polar substances or class of substances that are to large to pass through the membrane channels
permease or carrier protiens
Carrier proteins are sometimes refered to as (1)
permease
(1) is normally in higher concentration in the blood then in the cells
glucose
is carrier meddiated transport limited? explain why?
yes by the number of recepetors present
What are channel protiens?
are trasnmembrane protiens that serve to transport substances unsally ions or water through aqueious channels from one side of the membrane to the other
NAME
are transmembrane protiens that serve to transport substances usally ions or water through aqueous channels from one side of the membrane to the other
channel protiens
Explain if when channel protiens open? (4)
(1)open for water and small ions, (2)selctive to pore size and the charge of the amino acid (3)are always open (4)gated and open for chemical or electrical signals
Is facilate diffusion controlble?
yes
What is osmosis?
the diffusion of water
NAME
is the diffusion of water
osmosis
Water move freely though water specific channels called (1)
aquaporins
What are aquaporins?
are water specfic channels by which water moves
The extent to which water's concetration decreases depends on?
the number of solute particles
What is osmolarity?
refers to the total concentration of all solutles particles in a soultion
NAME
refers to the total concentration of all solutes particles in a solution
osmolarity
As water diffuses into the cell the (1) is equal to the (2)
(1)hydrostatic pressure (2)osmotic pressure
As (1) diffues into the cell the hydryostatic pressure is equal to the ostmotic pressure
water
What is the hydrostatic pressure?
the back pressure exerted by water against the membrane
NAME
is the back pressure exerted by water against the membrane
hydrostatic pressure
What is osmotic pressure?
the cells tendency ot resisit futrther net entry
NAME
is the cell's tendecny to resisist further net entry
osmotic pressure
When does osmosis ocur?
whenever the water concentration differs on the two side of the membrane
NAME
ocurs whenever the water concentration differs on two sides of the membrane
osmosis
Osmotic imbalance can cause animal cell to either (1) or (2)
lyse or shrink
Lyse means that the cell will (1)
burst
What is tonicity?
is the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of the cell altering their internal water volumne
NAME
is the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of the cell altering their internal water volumne
tonicity
If a anaimal cell is placed in a (1) solution it will lyse
hypotonic
What happens if a animal cell is palced in a hypotonic solution?
it will lyse
What happens if a animal cell is placed in a hypertonic solution?
it will shrink
NAME
if a animal cell is placed in this solution it will shrink
hypertonic
a solution;s osmolarity is based soley on (1)
total solute concentration
A solution's toncitiy is based on (1) or (2)
(1)solute concentration (2)solute permeability of the plasma membrane
(1)is extremly important in determining the distribution of water in various fluid-containing compartments of the body
osmosis
Is simple diffusion a selevtive process?
no
Is osmosis a selective process?
no
How can a dehydrated patient be treated?
by giving them a hyptonic solution
NAME
these patients cna be treated w hypotonic solutions
dehydrated patients
What is filtration?
is the process that forces water and solutes through a memrbane or capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure
NAME
is a process that forces water and solutes through a membrane or capillary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure
filtration
The gradient for filtration is (1)
passive granditent
(1)for the gradient is a passive gradient
filtration
What is a passive gradient?
is when soulte containing fluid is pushed from a higher pressure area to a lower pressure area
NAME
is when solute containing fluid is pushed from a higher pressure area to a lower pressure area
passive gradient
(1) exerted by the blood forces fluid out of the capillaries
hydrostaic pressure
(1)also providse the fluid extercted by the kidneys as urine
filtration
is filtration selective?
no
What are the differ types of intergral protiens? (5)
(1)structural (2)ionic (3)transport (4)carrier (5)enzaymtic protiens
free ions can only be captured by (1)
anti-oxidative agents
Give some ex(s)of anit-oxidative agents? (4)
(1)choclate (2)broccli (3)citrus fruits (4)nuts (5)oily foods like fish
What does cholestral do?
helps hold the membrane together
NAME
helps hold the membrane together
cholestral
(1)helps sugar get to the membrane
insulin
What is isotatnic?
solutions w the same solute concentration as that of the cystol
NAME
are solutions w the same solute concentration as that of the cystol
isotatinic
What is hypertonic?
solutions w a greater concentration then that of the cytosol
NAME
are soltuions w a greater concentration then that of the cytosol
hypertonic
What is hyptonic?
solutions having less concentrations then that of the cystol
NAME
is solutions having less conectration then that of the cystol
hypotonic
What is hyptonic?
solutions having less concentrations then that of the cystol
NAME
is solutions having less conectration then that of the cystol
hypotonic
What are the two major mechanisms of active transport?
(1)active transport (2)vesicular transport
What is active transport?
is in which active transporters or solute pumps move solutes and most importantly ions againsts the conceration gradient
NAME
is when transporters or solute pumps move solutes and most importantly ions against the concentration gradient
active transport
What is a solute pump?
are transporters responsible for moving solutes or ions
NAME
are transporters that are responslble for moving solutes or ions
solute pumps
How are the differ active transports distungished?
by their energy source
Where does the energy for primary active transport come from?
directly from the hydrolysis of ATP
NAME
the energy for this transport comes directly from the hydrolysis of ATP
primary active transport
Where does the energy for secoundary active transport come from?
indirectly from the energy stored in ionic gradients created by the operation of primary active transport pumps
NAME
the energy for this transport comes indirectly from the energy stored in ionic gradients created by the operation of primary active transport
secoundary active transport
Secoundary active transport systems are all (1)
coupled systems
(1) transport systems are all coupled systems
secoundary active
What is coupled system?
means that they move more than one substance at a time
NAME
means they more more than one substance at a time
coupled system
What is a symport system?
is when two transported substances are moved in the same direction
NAME
is when two transported subtances are moved in the same direction
symport system
What is the antiport system?
is when transported substances "wave to each other" as they cross the memebrane in oppostie directions
NAME
is when transported substances "wave to each other" as they cross the membrane in oppostie directions
antiport system
What is primary active transport?
is the hydrolysis of ATP resulting in the phosphorylation of the transport protien allowing for the protien to pump solutes across the membrane
NAME
is the hyrdorlysis of ATP resulting in the phosphorylation of the transport protien allowing for the protien to pump solutes across the membrane
primary active transport
Give a ex of primary active transport? (2)
sodium-potassium pump (2)calcium pump
NAME
is ex is sodium-potassium pump and calcium pump
primary active transport
What is the carrier protien for the sodium-potassium pump?
Na+K+ ATPase
What is Na+K+ ATPase?
is the carrier protien for the sodium postassium pump
What is the concentration of K and Na like in the cell?
there is more Na in the outside of the cell and more of a concentration of K inside the cell
Why is the having a higher concentration of Na outside the cell and K in the cell so important?
bc the ionic concentration differences are essential for exicitble cells like nerve and muscle cells to function normally and for all body cells to maintian their normal fluid vol
T or F
a single ATP, powered pump such as Na K pump can indirectly drive the secoundary active transport of several other solutes
True
By moving sodium across the plasma membrane against its concentration, the pump (1)
stores energy
By (1), the pump stores energy
moving sodium across the plasma membrane
A substance pumped across the membrane can (1)
do work
What happens as a substance is pumped across the membrane and leaks back?
it can do work
What happens as Sodium moves back in the cell w the help of carrier protiens?
other substances are dragged along or cotransported by a commmon carrier protien
(1) can also be used to drive antiport systems
Ion gradients
Each membrane pump or cotransporter transports (1)
only specfic substances
How are large particles, marcomolecules, and fluids transported?
by vesicular transport
Vesicular transport is used to transport (1),(2),and (3)
(1)large particles (2)marcomolecules (3)fluids
Vesicular transport is the mechanism used for (1)
exocytosis
(1) is the mechanism used for exocytosis
vesicular transport
What is exocytosis?
is the moving of substances from the cell interior to the extracellular space
NAME
is the moving of substances from the cell interior to the extracellular space
exocytosis
What is endocytosis?
is moving substances across the plasma membrane into the cell from the extracellular environment
NAME
is moving substances across the plasma membrane into the cell from extracellular environment
endocytosis
What is transcytosis?
is moving substances into across the and then out of the cell
NAME
is moving substances into across the and then out of the cell
transcytosis
What is substance or vesicular trafficking?
moving substances from one area in the cell to another
NAME
is moving substances from one area to in the cell another
substance or vesicular trafficking
What is vesicle?
is a membraneous sac that encloses and transports contents by spilling them into the cell
NAME
is a membraneous sac that encloses and transports the contents by spilling them into the cell
vesicle
What is clathrin?
is a protien coating on the cytoplasmic face of the vesicle
NAME
is a protien coating on the cytoplasmic face of the vesicle
clathrin
What is the Phagocytosis?
is the engulfing of a cell
NAME
is the engulfing of a cell
phagocytosis
What is pagosome?
is the endocytoic vesicle formed
NAME
is the endocytoic vesicle formed
pagosome
How do most phagocytes move?
by amoeboid motion
NAME
mostly move by amoeboid motion
phagocytes
Pinocytosis is also called (1)
fluid-phase endocytosis
(1) is also called fluid-phase endocytosis
pinocytosis
What is amoebiod motion?
is the flowing of their cytoplasm into tremporary pseudopods allowing pagocytes to creep along
NAME
is the flowing of their cyptoplasm into temporary pseudopods allowing them to creep along
amoebiod motion
What is pinocytosis?
is a bit of infolding plasma membrane surrounds a very small vol of extracellular fluid containing dissolved molecules
NAME
is a bit of infolding plasma mebrane surrounds a very small vol of extracellular fluid containing dissolved molecules
pinocytosis
What is Caveolae?
tublar or flask shaped inpocketings of the plasma membrane seen in many cell types
NAME
is tublar or flask shaped inpocketings of the plasma membrane seen in my cell types
caveolae
What is receptor mediated endocytosis?
is the main mechanims for the specfic endocytosis and transcytosis of most macromolecules by body cell's and it is exquistly selective
NAME
is the main mechanism for the specfic endocytosis and transytosis of most macromolecules by body cell's and it is exquistly selective
receptor mediated endocytosis
How does exoctytosis ocur? (3)
(1)secretion or ejection of substances from a cell (2)teh substance is enclosed in a membrane vesicle which fuses w the plasma membrane and ruptures (3)releasing the substance to the exterior
NAME
Secretion or ejection of substances from a cell, the substance is enclosed in a membrane vesicle which fuses w the plasma membrane and ruptures the substance into the exterior
exocyotosis
What are types of endocytosis that ocur via clathrin coated vesicles? (3)
(1)Phagocytotis (2)Pinocytosis (3)receptor mediated endocytosis
How does phagocytosis ocur?
A large external particle is surrounded by a "seizing foot" and becomes enclosed in a clathrin-coated vesicle
NAME
a large extrernal particle is surrounded by a "seizing foot" and becomes enclosed in a clathrin-coated vesicle
phagocytosis
How does Pinocytosis ocur?
(1)plasma membrane sinks beneath an external fluid droplet containing small solutes (2)membrane edges fuse forming a fluid-filled /clathrin coated vesicle
NAME
the plasma membrane sinks beneath the external fluid droplet contianing small solutes and membrane edges fuse forming a fluid-filled vesicle/clathrin coated vesicle
pinocytosis
WNAME
a ex is the secretion of neurotransmitters, hormones, mucus, etc and ejection of cell wastes
exocyotisis
Give a ex of exocytosis? (2)
(1)the secretion of neurotransmitters, hormones, mucus, etc (2)ejection of wastes
Give a ex of phagocytosis?
In the human body, ocurs primarly in protective phaogcytes
NAME
ex ocurs primarly in protective phagocytes
phagocytosis
Why is pinocytosis important?
it is important for taking in dissolved solutes by absorptive cells of the kidney and intestines
NAME
is important for taking in dissolved solutes by absorptive cells of the kidney and intestines
pinocytosis
How does receptor mediated endocytosis work?
Slective endoctosis (2)external substances bind to membrane receptors and clarthin-coated pits are formed
NAME
Selective endoctosis, external substances bind to membrane receptors and clarthin-coated pits are formed
receptor mediated endocytosis
NAME
selective endocytosis ; external substances binds to membrane receptors and caveolin coated vesicles are formed
Endocytosis via caeolin-coated vesicles
What is endocytosis via caeolin-coated vesicles?
when external substances bind to membrane receptors and caveolin-coated vesicles are formed
NAME
is when vesicles coated w coatomer protiens pinch off from organelles and travel to other organelles to deliver their cargo
Endocytosis via coatomer-coated vesicles
What is endocytosis via coatomer coated vesiceles?
is when vesicles coated w coatomer protiens pinch off from organelles and travel to other organelles to deliver their cargo
NAME
example includes the means of intake for some hormones ,cholrestal, iron, and most marcormolecules
receptor mediated endocytosis
NAME
the roles are not known; proposed roles include cholestral regulation, and trafficking
Endocytosis via caveolin-coateed vesicles
NAME
accounts for nearly all intracellular trafficking of molecules
Endocyotiss via coatomer-coated vesicles
Endocyotisis via coatomer-coated vesicles accounts for (1)
nearly all intracellular trafficking of molecules
What is membrane potential ?
voltage across the membrane
NAME
is voltage across the membrane
membrane potential
What is voltage?
is electrical potential resulting from the separtion of oppositely charged particles
NAME
is electrical potential resulting from the separtion of oppositely charged particles
voltage
What keeps the different ions apart in the membrane?
their oppossite charges
in their resting state, all body cells exhibit a (1)
resting membrane potential
All cells are said to be (1)
polarized
The cell interior is eletrically (1)
neutral
How is the resting membrane potenital determined?
by the concentration gradients of K+ and by the differential permeability of the plasma membrane to K+ and other ions
as more and more K+ leave the cell, the negativity of the innner membrane attracts (1) back into the cell
K+
(1) is strongly attracted to the cell interior by its concentration gradient
Na
T orF
the number of ions producing the membrane poteintal is so small that it does not change the ion concetrations in any siginificant way
True
The cell exhibits a (1) in which diffusion causes ionic imbalances that polariz the membrane and active transport proccesses mantain the membrane potential
steady state
each turn of the sodium potassium pump ejects (1) out of the cell and carries (2) back into the cell
(1)3Na+ (2)2k+
(1) maintians both the membrane potienal and the osmotic balance
the ATp-dependent Na+K+ pump
only (1) solutes diffuse down the gradient, but for (1) it is partially true
uncharged (2)ions
(1) diffuse according to electrochemical gradients
ions
ions diffuse according to the (1)
electrochemical gradient
"upsetting" the resting membrane poteitnal by transient openings of is a normal means of (1)
activating neurons and muscle cells
What are the two large families of the glycocalyx?
(1)cell adhesion molecules (2)plasma membrane receptors
What is CAM stand for?
cell adhesion molecules
What is CAM?
are found in almost every cell in the body and play key roles in embronyic devolpment, wound repair, and immunity
NAME
are found in almost every cell in the body and play key roles in embronyic devlopment, wound repair and immunity
CAM
CAMS can acts as (1), (2), (3)
(1)the molecular "velcro" cells used to anchor themselves to molecules in the extraceullar space and to each other (2)the arms that migrating cells use to haul themselves past one another (3)SOS singals sticking out from the blood vessel lining that rally protective white blood cells to a nearby infected or injured area (4)mechanical sensors that respond to local tension at the cell surface by stimulating symthesis or degradation of adhesive membrane junctions
What are membrane receptors?
are a huge and diverse group of integral protiens and glycoprotiens that serve as bonding sites
NAME
are huge adn diverse group of intergral protiens and glycoprotiens that serve as bonding sites
membrane receptors
What is contacting singnaling/
the actual coming together and touching of cells
NAME
is the actual coming together and touching of cells
contacting singnaling
NAME
is important for normal devlopment and immunity
contact singnaling
What is electrical singnaling?
when certain plasma membrane receptors are channel protiens that respond to changes in the membrane potiental by opening or closing
NAME
is when certain plasma membrane protiens are channels protins that respond to changes in the membrane potiental by either closing or opening
electrical signaling
voltage regulated channels are common in exicitable tissues like (1) and (2)
(1)nueral (2)muscle
Most plasma membrane recpetors are involed in (1)
chemical signaling
Most (1) are involved in chemical signaling
plasma membrane receptors
What are ligands?
are plasma membrane receptors by which signaling chemicals bind to
NAME
signaling chemicals that bind specifically to plasma membrane receptors
ligands
What is Acetylcholine?
stimiuletes the skeletal muscles to contract but inhibits the heart muscle
NAME
stimulates the skelteal muscles to contract but inhibits the heart muscle
Acetylcholine
A target cell's response depends on (1)
the internal machinary that the receptor is linked to
NAME
exert their effect indirectly through G protien
G protien-linked receptors
NAME
acts as the middleman or relay to activate a membrane bound eznyme or ion channel
G protien
What is a G protien?
act as the middleman or relay to activate a membrane bound enzyme or ion channel
What happens when the G-protien is activated?
secound messengers are generated and connect the plasma membrane events to the internal metabolic machinery of the cell
What are two very important secdoun messengers?
(1)cyclic AMP (2)ionic calicum
What do cyclic AMP and ionic calicum do?
typically activate protien kinase enzymes
NAME (2)
typically they activate protien kinase enzymes
cyclic AMP and ionic calicum
How do kineases activate other enzymes?
by transfering a phosphate group from ATP to other protiens
What is one of natures most simplest molecueles?
NO
NO stands for (1)
nitric oxide
NAME
is an major environmental polluttant
NO
NAME
is the first gas known to act as biological messenger
NO
What is NO? (3)
(1)one of natures most simplest molecules (2)an environmental pollutant (3)the first gas known to act as a biologcal messenger
What is so bad about NO?
bc it is so small it can slip into and out of cells (2)its one paired electron makes it highly reactive
What is the cytoplasm?
is the cellular material btwn the plasma mebrane and the nucleus
NAME
is the cellular material btwn the plasma membrane and the nucleus
cytoplasm
NAME
is the site where most cellular activies are accomplished
cytoplasm
What are the three major parts of the cytoplasm?
(1)cytosol (2)organelles (3)inclusions
NAME
is the visous semittransparent fluid in which other cytoplasmic elements are suspended
cytosol
What are cytoplasmic organelles?
are the metabolic machinery of the cell
NAME
are the metabolic macheniary of the cell
cytoplasmic organelles
What are inclusions?
are chemical substances that may or may not be present depending on the cell type
NAME
are chemical substances that may or may not be present depending on the cell type
inclusions
Give some exs of inclusions?
glycogen
T or F
all organelles have a membrane
False
What are some ex(s) of nonmembranous ogranelles? (3)
(1)cytoskeleton (2)centrioles (3)ribosomes
cytoskeletion, centrioles, and ribosomes are exs of (10
nonmembranous organelles
Besides provding (1)an organelles membranes unites it w the (2)
(1)isolation (2)endomembrane system
What makes up the endomembrane system? (5)
(1)mitochondria (2)peroxisome (3)lysomes (4)er (5)glogi apparatus
NAME
are threadlike or sausage shaped membranous organelles
mitochondria
generally, (1) are clustered where the action is
mitochondria
(1) enclose the mitochondria
two membranes
Describe the two membranes of the mitochondria? (2)
(1)the outer membrane is smooth and featured less (2)the inner membrane folds inward forming a shelflike cristae that protudes into the matrix
the inner membrane of the mitochondria folds innerward forming shelflike (1) that protude into the matrix
cristae
Mitochondria contain their own (1) and are able to (2)
(1)DNA and RNA (2)replicate themselves
(1) contain their own DNA and RNA and are able to replicate themselves
mitochondria
mitochondria are similar to (1)
purple bacteria
(1) are similar to purple bacteria
mitochondria
What is widely believed about mitochondria?
that mitochondria arose from bacteria cells that invaded the ancient ancestors of plant and animal cells
NAME
this is believed to arose from bacteria cells that invaded the ancient ancestors of plant and animal cells
mitochondria
NAME
are small, dark-staining granules composed of protiens and a varity of RNA call ribosomal RNA
ribosomes
What are free ribosomes?
make soluble protiens that function in the cytool
NAME
make soluble protiens that function in the cystol
free ribosomes
What are membrane bound ribosomes?
synsthezies protiens destined either for incorporation into the cell membrane or for export from the cell
NAME
synthesize protiens destined either for incorporation into the cell membrane or for export from the cell
membrane bound ribsomes
What is the differ btwn free ribosomes and membrane bound ribosomes?
(1)free ribosomes make soluble protients that function in the cytool (2)membrane bound ribosomes synthesize protiens destined either for incoporation into the cell membrane or for export from the cell
T or F
ribosomes can switch back and forth btwn functions
true
What does ER stand for?
endoplasmic reticulum
What is ER/
is an extensive system of itnerconnected tubs and parallel membranes enclosing fluid-filled cavites or cisternae that coils and twist through the cystol
NAME
is an extensive system of itnerconnected tubs and parallel membranes enclosing fluid-filled cavites or cisternae that coils and twist through the cystol
ER
What is cisternae?
part of the er
Where can most rough er be found?
in most secretory cells (2)antibody producing plasma cells (3)liver cells
NAME
this can be found in most secretory cells, antibody producing plasma cells, and liver cells
rough er
When does a ribosomes attach to the mebrane?
when a singal sequence is present in a protien
When a singal sequence is present in a protien, then (1)
a ribosomes attaches to the rough er
what happens after a ribosomes attaches to the rough er?
the "cargo" of the ribosome and mRNA is is guided to receptor sites on the ER membrane by SRP
What does SRP stand for?
signal recongination particle
NAME
is a continuaion of the rough er and consists of tubules arranged in a looping network
smooth er
What are (5) ways that smooth er catalyze reactions?
(1)lipid metabolism, cholestral syntheisis and syntheis of lipids (2)synthesis of sterioid based horomones such as sex hormones (3)Absorption, syntehsis, and transport of fats (4)detoxifaction od drugs, certian pesticides, and carinogens (5)breakdown of stored glycogen to form free glucose
Where can smooth er be found? (2)
skeletal and (2)muscle cells
T or F
most body cells contain little to no smooth er
true
NAME
cosists of stacked and flattened membrane sacs shaped like hollow dinner plates, assocaited w swarms of tiny membranus protiens
Golgi Apparatus
the golgi appartatus is the primary (1)
traffic director
NAME
its major function is to modify, concentrate, and package the protiens and lipids made at the rough er
Golgi apparatus
What are two parts of the Golgi Apparatus?
(1)cis face (2)trans face
What is the cis face of the golgi apparatus?
the recieving side
What is the trans face of the golgi apparatus?
the shippin side
NAME
is the shipping side of the golgi appartus
trans face
NAME
is the recieving side of the golgi appartus
cis face
(1) are also calle granules
secretory vesicles
secretory vesicles are also called (1)
granules
what are granules?
vesicles containing protiens destined for export pinch off from the trans face
NAME
are vesicles containing protiens destined for export pinch off from the trans face
granules
How do granules discharge thier contents?
exocytosis
NAME
are spherical membranous organelles containg digestive enzymes
lysomes
NAMe
are large and abundant in phagocytes
lysosomes
Where are lysosomes large and abundaunt?
phagocytes
lyosomes are somtimes called (1)
acid hydrolases
(1) are somtimes called acid hydrolases because they work in acidic conidtions
lysosomes
How is the lysosomal membrane adapted to serve lysosmal functions? (2)
(1)it contains H+ pump, ATPases that gather H+ ions from the cystol to mantain the organelles acidic PH (2) it retains the dangerous acid hydrolases while permiting the final products of digestion to so that they can be used by the cell or excreted
Lysosomes only work in (1)conditons
acidic
How do lysosomes function as a cell's demoltion crew? (5)
(1)digesting particles taken in by endocytosis such as ingested bacteria, viruses, and toxins (2)degraded worn out or non-functional organelles (3)performing metabolic functions such as glycogen break down and release (4)breaking down nonuseful tissues such as the webs btwn fingers and toes and uterine lining during menstruation (5)breaking down the bone ti release calcium ions into the blood
(1) is found mainly in white blood cells
secerteory lysomes
secreteory lysomes are found mainly in (1)cells
white blood
What happens when a lysosome ruptures?
autolysis
When does autolysis ocur?
when a lysome ruptures
What is autolysis?
the self-digestion of a cell resulting from the rupture of a lysosome
NAME
the self-digestion of a cell resulting from the rupture of a lysosome
autolysis
What is Tay-Sachs disease?
conditon in which lysosomes lack an enzyme needed to break down glycolipid abundant in nerve cell mebranes
NAME
conditon in which lysosomes lack an enzyme needed to break down glycolipid abundant in nerve cell mebranes
Tay-sach disease
What are the symptosm of Tay-sachs disease?
(1)infants have doll like features and pink translucent skin (2)progresses towards mental retradation, seizures, blindness, and death w in a few months
NAME
symptoms include in infants have doll like features and pink translucent skin. lastly, progresses towards mental retradation, seizures, blindness, and death w in a few months
Tay-Sach disease
What is the endomembrane system?
is a system of organelles that work mainly together
NAME
is a system of organelles that work mainly together
endomembrane system
What are the main functions of the endomembrane system (2)?
(1)to produce, store, and export biological molecules (2)degrade potentially harmful substances
NAME
functions include to produce, store, and export biological molecules and degrade potentially harmful substances
endomembrane system
NAME
are membraneous sacs containing a variety of powerful enzymes
peroxisomes
What are two of the most powerful enzymes that make up peroxisomes?
(1)oxidases (2)catalases
What are oxidases?
an enzyme that uses O2 to detoxify harmful substances
NAME
is an enzyme that uses O2 to detoxify harmful substances such as alcholol and formaledhyde
oxidases
What is the main function of oxidase that is the most imoportant>
to nuetralize free radicals
NAME
their most important function is nuetralize free radicals
oxidase
What are free radicals?
highly reactive chemicals w unpaired electrons that can scramble the structure of biological molecules
NAME
are highly reactive chemicals w unpaired electrons that can scramble the strucutre of biological molecules
free radicals
What does oxidase do w the free radicals?
converts free radicals into hydrogen peroxide which is quickly converted into water
NAME
converts free radicals into hyrdogen peroxide which is quickly converted into water
oxidase
T or F
free radicals and Hydrogen peroxide are normal by products of cellular metabolism
True
Where are peroxisomes the most numerous?
in the liver and kindey cells
NAME
are most numerous in the liver and kidney cells
peroxisomes
NAME
is elboarate series of rods running through the cytsol
cytoplasm
Cytoskelton can act as a cell's (1), (2), and (3) by supporting cellular strucures and providing the machinary to generate various cell movements
(1)bones (2)muscles (3)ligaments
(1) can act as cell's bones, muscles, and ligaments by supporting cellular structures and providing the machinary to generate various cell movements
cytoskeleton
What are the three type of rods that make of the cytoskeleton? (3)
(1)microfilaments (2)microtubules (3)intermediate filaments
What are mircortubles?
have the largest diamter and are made up of tublin
NAME
have the largest in diamter and are made up of tublin
microtubles
Most microtubles radiate from a small region of cytoplasm near the nucelus called the (1)
centrosome
Organelles like the mitochondria. lysosomes, and secreteroy granoles are continually pulled along the microtubules and repostioned by (1)that act like train engines
motor protiens
What are microfilaments?
are the thinnest elements of the cytoskeleton and are made up of actin
NAME
are the thinnest of elements of the cytoskeleton and are made up of actin
mircofilaments
Most mircofilament are involved in (1) and (2)
(1)cell moltity (2)changes in cell shape
Most (1) are involved in cell moltilty and changes in the cell shape
mircofilaments
Mircofilament interacte w (1) to generate contractile forces in the muscle cell
myosin
(1) interacte w myosin to generate contractile forces in the muscle cell
mircofilaments
myosin interacte w myosin to generate (1)
contractile forces in the muscle cells
What are intermediate filaments?
are tough, insouble protien fibers that have a diamter btwn that of mircofilaments and microtubules
NAME
are tough, insouble protien fibers that have a diamter btwn that of mircofilaments and mircotubules
intermediate filaments
Mircotubules are anchored at one end in a region called (1)
centrosome
(1) are anhored at one end in a region called centrosome
mircotubules
What is a centrosome?
is region in which mircotubules are anchored
NAME
acts as the mircotubule organizing center
centrosome
NAME
are small, barrel-shaped organelles oriented at right angles to each other
centrioles
Centrioles also form the bases of (1) and (2)
(1)cilla (2)flagella
(1) also form the bases of cila and flagella
centrioles
What are cilla?
are whiplike, motile celular extensions
NAME
are whiplike, motile celular enxtensions that ocur typically in large numbers on the exposed surfeaces of certain cells
cilla
Give a ex of where cilla can be found
lining of the respirartary tract=pushes bacteria and mucuous out of the lungs
What are flagella?
projections of centrioles that are longer than cilla
NAME
are projections of centrioeles that are longer than cilla
flagella
What is the main differ btwn cilla and flagella? (2)
cilla propel other substances across a cell's surface (2)flagellum propels the cell itself
What is a basal body?
refers to the base of cilla and flagella which is made up of centrioles
NAME
refers to the base of cilla and flagella which is made up of centrioles
basal body
What is dynein?
is the motor protien that are the arms of the flagella
NAME
is the motor protien that are the arms of the flagella
dynein
What is a power stroke ?(hint flagella)
when the flagella is nearly striaght and moves as a arc
NAME
is when the flagella is nearly striaght and moves as a arc
power stroke
What is the recovery stroke?
hint flagella
is when the flagella bends and returns to its normal postion
NAME
is when the flagella bends and returns to tis normal postion
recovery strok
NAME
is a techinque for analyzing minsucle sample of DNA taken from semen, skin etc
DNA fingerprinting
What is the differ btwn every human?
.1 % difference
T or F
All cells only have one nucleus
False
What is a multnucleate?
is cells that have more than one nucleus
NAME
are cells that have more than one nucleus
multnucleate
Give some exs of cells that have a multnucleate?
(1)skeletal muscle cells (2)bone destruction cells (3)some liver cells
Skeleteal muscle cells, bone destruction cell, and some liver cells have (1)
multnucleate
T or F
all of our body's cells have a nucleus
False
What is the only exception in our body cells that do not have a nucleus?
red blood cells
Do red blood cells have a nucleus
No
NAME
these cells do not have nucelus
Red blood cells
Cells w out a nucelus are called (1)
anucleate
What is a anucleate?
is a cell w out nucleus
can a cell reproduce w / out a nucleus?
no
What are three parts of the nucleus?
(1)nuclear envelope (2) nucleoli (3)chromatin
What are nuclear envelope?
a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus
NAME
is a double memrbane that surrounds the nucleus
nuclear envelope
NAME
regulates the entry and exit of large particles into and out of the nucleus
nuclear pores
What are nuclear pores?
regulates the entry and exit of large particles into and out of the nucleus
is the nucleoli are not membrane bound?
no
NAME
are dark staining spherical bodies found w/ in the nuclues
nucleoli
What is nucleoli?
are dark staining spherical bodies found w/ in the nuclues
NAME
is a system of bumpy threads weaving its way through the nucloplasm
nucleoli
what makes up the inside of DNA?
protien histone
What are nucleosomes?
clusters of eight histones connected like beads
NAME
are clusters of eight histones connected like beads
nucleosomes
What is extended chromatin?
are active chromatin segements
NAME
are active chromatin segements
extended chromatin
What are condensed chromatin?
are inactive chromatin segments
NAME
are inactive chromatin segments
condensed chromatin
What are chromosomes?
the chromatin coiled and condensed into barlike bodies
NAME
is the chromatin coiled and condensed into barlike bodies
chromosomes
NAME
is a series of changes a cell undergoes through life from the time it is formed until it reproduces
cell cycle
What is the cell cycle?
is a series of changes a cell undergoes through life from the time it is formed until it reproduces
What are the two major parts of the cell cycle?
(1)interphase and (2)cell division
What is interphase?
is when the cell grows and carries on its normal activities
NAME
is when the cell grows and carries on its normal activites
interphase
NAME
when the cell divides
cell divsion
Cell divison is also called (1)
mitoitic phase
(1) is also called the mitoitc phase
cell division
What are the different parts of interphase in order as they ocur? (3)
(1)G1 (2)S (3)G2
What is the G1 phase?
the growth phase
NAME
is the growth phase
G1
NAME
is the growth and DNA synthesis phase
S phase
WHat is the S phase?
is the growth and DNA synthesis phase
What is the G2 phase?
is the growth and final preparation for cell division phase
NAME
is the growth and final preparation for cell division phase
G2 phase
What is the G0 phase?
when the cell is undergoing no activity
NAME
is when the cell is undergoing no activity
G0 phase
Draw a picture of the cell cycle
pg 99
What is helicase?
is an eznyme that untwists the double helix
NAME
is an enzyme that untwists the double helix
helicase
What is the replication bouble?
is the site of sepearation of DNA
NAME
is the site of seperation of DNA
replication bouble
What is the replication fork?
is the Y shaped region at each end of the replication bubble
NAME
is the Y shaped region at the end of the replication bubble
replication fork
A bonds w (1)
T
T bonds w (1)
T
G bonds to (1)
C
C bonds w (1)
G
A stands for (1)
adenine
G stands for (1)
Guanine
T stands for (1)
thyamine
C stands for (1)
cytosine
What is replisome?
are several different protiens present in a large complex for DNA synethsis
NAME
are several different protiens present in a large complex for DNA synethsis
replisome
What is DNA ligase?
seals the sugar phosphate back bone
NAME
is an enzyme that seals the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA
DNA ligase
The mechanism of DNA replication is sometimes refered to as (1)
semiconservative replication
(1) is essential for body growth and tissue repair
cell division
Which cells are always dividing? (3)
(1)skin (2)intestinal (3)the liver replicates but more slowly
Which cells do not divide? (3)
(1)nervous tissues (2)skeletal muscle tissue (3)heart muscle
How do cells that do not divide the like nervous tissue cells repair?
w/ scar tissue
What are the two phases of cell division?
(1)mitiosis (2)cytokineisi
What is mitiosis?
division of the nucelus
NAME
is the division of the nucleus
mitiosis
NAME
is the division of the cytoplasm
cytokineisis
What is cytokinesis?
is the division of the cytoplasm
What are the phases of mitosis?
(1)prophase (2)metaphase (3)anaphase (4)telophase
What is the cleavage furrow?
is the spindle equator
NAME
is the spindle equator
cleavage furrow
The plasma membrane over the center of the cell is drawn inward to form a (1) by the activity of a contractile ringe made of actin filaments
cleavage furrow
What is important in the control of cell division?
the ratio of cell surface area to cell vol
Why is the ratio of cell surface to area to cell vol important during cell division?
bc the amounts of nutrients growing is releated to its vol
What is interphase?
(1)the nucleolus is visible and the u can see the centrioles and chromatin
NAME
the nucleolus is visible and u can see the centriole and the chromatin
interphase
Draw the differ phases of mitoisis
p 102
Which phase is the longest of mitosis?
prophase
NAME
the nuclear enveolpoe is barely visible, the spindle forms, and microtubules attach to kinetochore
late prophase
What is later prophase? (3)
(1)the nuclear enevolpe is barely visible (2)the spindle forms (3)the mirctubules attarch to the kinetochore
What is metaphase?
the chromosomes line up against the poles in the spindle
NAME
the chromosomes line up against the poles in the spindle
metaphase
NAME
during this phase, the chromsomes split
anaphase
What is anaphase?
the chromosomes split
What is the telophase and cytokinesis ?
(1)the nucleus starts to form again (2)cleavage furrow forms as the two cells split
NAME
the nucleus starts to form again, and the cleavage furrow forms as the two cells split
telophase and cytokinesis
Chromosomes consist of two (1)
sister chromatids
(1) consist of two sister chromatids
chromosomes
When do normal cells stop proliferating?
when they begin touching
What is contact inhibition?
is when cells touch they stop proliferating
NAME
is when call touch they stop proliferating
contact inhibition
The cell cycle is controled by a (1)regulated by internal and external factors
built in clock
What are two groups of protiens that apper crucial to the ability of a cell to accomplish S phase and enter mitosis?
cyclins (2)cdks
cyclins and Cdks are protiens that are essenital for (1)
the S phase and mitosis to start
What does Cdks stand for?
cyclin-dependent kinases
What protien is required to give the ok to pass the G2 checkpoint?
MPF
What is MPF?
is a protien that is required to give the ok to pass the G2 checkpoint
What does MPF stand for?
M-phase prompoting factor
What is gene?
is a segement of DNA molecule that carries instructions for creating polypeptide chains
NAME
is a segement of DNA molecule that carries instructions for creating polypeptide chains
gene
What is triplet?
three base sequence
NAME
are three base sequence
triplet
What are exons?
are amino acid-specfying information sequences
NAME
are amino acid-specfying info sequences
exons
What are introns?
are noncoding segements
NAME
are noncoding segements
introns
What are the (3) forms of RNA?
(1)tRNA (2)mRNA (3)rRNA
What are two major steps of polypetide synthesis?
(1)transcription (2)transalation
NAME
are rules by which the base sequence of a gene is translated into an amion acid sequence
genetic code
What is transcription?
is DNA replication
NAME
is DNA replication
transciption
NAME
is when DNA's info is encoded in mRNA
transcription
NAME
is when the info is carried by mRNA
translation
Draw a simple scheme of information flow to show from the DNA gene to the protein structure
p106
What is translation?
protien synthesis
NAME
is protien synthesis
translation
What is promoter?
is a specail DNA sequence that specfies where mRNA synthesis starts and which DNA strand is going to serve as the templete
NAME
is a sepacial sequence of DNA that specfies where mRNA synthesis starts and which DNA strand is going to serve as the templete
promoter
NAME
is the enzyme that oversees the synthesis of mRNA
RNA polmyerase
Each triplet of mRNA is called (1)
codon
What is a codon?
is a triplet of mRNA
What are spliceosomes?
are large mRNA complexes that snip out introns and splice together teh remaining exon-coded sections
NAME
are large mRNA complexes that snip out introns and splice together the remaining exon-coded sections
splicoesomes
What is anticodon?
is triplet complementarty to mRNA
NAME
is a triplet complementrary to mRNA
anticodon
What signals for the two units of the ribosomes to bind together?
initiator tRNA
What are start codon?
AUG
NAME
AUG
is a start codon
NAME
UAA, UGA, and UAG
stop codon
What are the stop codons? (3)
(1)UAA (2)UGA (3)UAG
What are extracellular materials?
are any substances contributing to body mass that are found outside the cells
NAME
are any substances contributing to body mass that are found outside the cells
extracellular materials
What are the two types of extracellular material? (2)
(1)body fluids (2)Cellular secretions
What is body fluid?
is mainly interstital fluid, blood plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid
NAME
is mainly interstitial fluid, blood plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid
body fluid
What are cellular secretions?
are extracellular materials include substances that aid in digestion
NAME
are extracellular materials include substances that aid in digestion
cellular secretions
(1) is partuculary abundant in the connective tissue
extracellular matrix
What is cell differentation?
is the development of specfic and distinctive features in cells
NAME
is the development of specfic and distinctive features in cells
cell differentation
What is autotosis?
is a type of programmed cell death that eliminetes excess cells
NAME
is a type of programmed cell death taht eliminates excess cells
autotosis
What is hyperplasia?
is when one is anemic and the bone marrow produces red blood cells at a faster rate
NAME
is when one is anemic and the bone marrow produces red blood cells at a faster rate
hyperplasia
What is atrophy?
is a decrease in size of an organ or body tissue
NAME
is a decrease in size of an organ or body tissue
atrophy
muscles that lose thier nerve supply atrophy and waste away and lack of excersie can lead to (1)
brittle bones
(1) accounts for most problems w old age
cell aging
What are two vitmains that antioxidants?
C and E
antioxidants may help to prevent (1)
excessive free radicals
(1) may help to prevent excessive free radicals
antioxidants
NAME
Vitamins C and E are exs
antioxidants
One theory of aging says that aging is due to progressive disorders in the (1)
immune system
Explain the theory that says that progressive disorders in the immune system causes ageing (2)
(1)autoimmune responses turns against our tissues (2)their is a progressive weakening of the immune system
The most widely accepeted theory of agining is (1) theory
genetic
What is the genetic theory of agiging?
suggests that cell aging are "programmed into our genes"
NAME
suggests that cell aging is "programmed into our genes"
the genetic theory of aging
The genentic theory, statest that a (1)clock determines the number of times a cell can divide
telomere
What are telomeres?
are strings of nucleotides that cap the end of chromsomes, protecting them from fraying or fusing w other chromosomes
NAME
are strings of nucleotides that cap the end of chromosomes, protecting them from fraying or fusing w other chromosomes
telomores
Do telomores carry vital genes?
yes
Why are telmores essential for survial?
bc each time DNA replicates the ends of nucleotides are lost and the telemores get shorter
What happens when telemores get a certain length?
a stop-division signal is given
What is telomarease?
is an enzyme that protects telomores from degrading