Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the superficial extrinsic back muscles?
trapezius, latissimus dorsi
what are the deep extrinsic back muscles?
rhomboids, levator scapulae, serratus posterior (inferior and superior)
what are the superfical intrinsic muscles?
splenius capitis and cervicis

erector spinae

semispinalis thoracis, multifundus and rotatores
what is the purpose of throacolumbar fascia?
in lower back and provides attatchment for muscles
what is kyphosis
what is lordosis
backward bending of spine which can be temporarly induced by pregnancy
what is the sacral hiatus?
opening on the dorsal side of hte sacrum and where a sacral nerve block (for anesthesia) is done
what is ligamentum nuchae?
neck ligament, helps extend neck, thick suprasinous ligament
ligamentum flavum?
helps support upright posture, spinal tap is done here
what do longitudinal ligaments do?
hold vertebral bodies together
where is the posterior longitudinal ligament?
is incomplete laterally, helps prevent hyperflexion of spine, adn contiumes btwn atlas and skull to form tectorila membrane
where is the anterior longitudinal ligament?
helps prevent hyperextension of spin and continues btwn atlas and skull to form anterior atlanto-occipital membrane
where can you find fibrous joints in the vertebrate?
between spines, laminae, bodies, transverse processes of adj. vertebrae
where can you find interarticular synovial joints in the vertebrea?
btwn adj articular processes
what is spondylolysis?
bilateral defect in the pars interarticularis
what is spondylolithsis?
slippage of one vertebrae over another
where would you find cartilaginous joints?
intervertebral discs, btwn adj vertebral bodies, have tensile strength taht resists streching
what are the 2 components of intervertebreal discs?
annulus fibrosus
nucleus pulposus
what is the function of extrinsic back muscles?
attatch the superior appendicular skeleton to the axial skeleton
what is the function of the intrinsic back muscles?
maintain posture and control movements of the vertebral column
what are the muscles of the rotator cuff?
SITS - supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
where is the first part of the axillary artery and what are its branch(es)?
from the lateral border of 1st rib to medial border of of the pec minor. it has one branch - superior thoracic artery
where is the second part of the axillary artery and what are its branch(es)?
posterior to pec minor and has 2 branches - thoracoacromial and lateral thoracic arterteries
where is the third part of the axillary artery and what are its branch(es)?
lateral border of pec minor to inferior border of teres major: three brances - subscapular (largest), anterior humeral circumflex and posterior humeral circumflex
the sugical neck of the humerus is in direct contact with which nerve?
the radial groove of the humerus is in direct contact with which nerve?
radial nerve
the distal end of the humerus is in direct contact with which nerve?
median nerve
the medial epicondyle of the humerus is in direct contact with which nerve?
ulnar nerve
what perpherates the costalcoracoid membrane?
cephalic vein, lateral pectoral nerve, thoracromial artery
sympathetic trunk
paired nerve cords linking tgeh ganglia wich run paralles to the vertebral column
communicating rami
connections btw the spinal nerve adn teh sympathetic trunk and ganglia
white communicating rami
connect ventral primary rami w/ sympathetic ganglia - pathway for sypmathetic outflow from CNS to the sympathetic trunk and ganglia
gray communicating rami
connect the sympathetic ganglion w/ ventral primary rami - pathway for sympathetic outflow into spinal nerve branches
what is a dermatome?
area of skin supplied by a spinal cord segment
what is a myotome?
group of skeletal muscle innervated by one spinal cord segment (pair of venteral roots)
wing of scapula when arm is flexed and dorsal pressure is applied occurs when?
the long thoracic that innervates the serratus anterior is injured
wing of scapula while the arm is abducted
the accessory nerve that innervates the trapezius is injured
which muscles elevate the scapula?
trapezius (upper), levator scapulae, rhomboids
which muscles depress the scapula?
pec minor, trapezius (lower), serratus anterior, lat dorsi, pec major (indirectly), subclavius
which muscles cause downward rotation of the scapula?
rhomboid major, levator scapulae, pac major and minor
which muscles upward rotation of the scapula?
trapezius, serratus anterior
which muscles cause protraction of the scapula?
serratus anterior and pec major and minor
which muscles cause retraction of the scapula?
rhomboids, lat dorsi, trapezius