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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the 4 functional types of neurons? Which is responsible for the autonomic nervous system?
GVA, GVE, GSA, GSE; GVE
what makes the GVE neuron distinct from the others?
it is a 2-neuron chain
where are GVA neurons located in relation to GVE neurons?
in the same nerves
the first neuron of the two-neuron GVE chain has its cell body in the ____ while the second neuron has its cell body in the _____.
CNS; PNS
the synapse between two neurons of the GVE chain occurs where?
within the ganglion
what is the name for the axon of the first GVE neuron? The second?
preganglionic fiber; postganglionic fiber
what are the two divisiong of the ANS?
sympathetic and parasympathetic
are visceral structures innervated by sympathetic or parasympathetic neurons?
both
which structures are only innervated by sympathetic neurons?
sweat glands, arrector pili muscles, adrenal medulla, most blood vessels
which two blood vessels receive both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation?
coronary vessels and vessels of the genetalia
do sympathetic neurons vasocontrict or vasodilate blood vessels?
both
what determines the effect that sympathetic innervation will have on a blood vessel?
type of receptor
what is the region that preganglionic cell bodies of sympathetic neurons are found?
T1-L2/L3
which horn of the spinal cord are preganglionic cell bodies most commonly found?
lateral
through which root do the preganglionic sympathetic fibers exit the spinal cord?
ventral root
from the ventral root, how does the preganglionic fiber enter the sympathetic chain?
via the white ramus communicans
what are the 4 categories of sympathetic destinations?
limbs and body wall, head, thoracic cavity, abdominal/pelvic cavities
where are the paravertebral ganglia located?
in two chains located on the lateral aspects of the vertebral column and extend from the base of the skull to the coccyx
where are prevertebral ganglia located?
in aortic and pelvic plexuses on the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta and within the pelvic cavity
which sympathetic nerves synapse in the prevertebral ganglia?
those traveling to the abdominal and pelvic cavities (splanchnic nerves)
fibers traveling to the limbs or body wall follow which path once entering the sympathetic chain?
travel in chain to target spinal level, synapse in the chain ganglia, exit the chain through the gray ramus communicans and travel in VPR or DPR to reach destination
in which ganglia do fibers traveling to the head synapse? Via which nerves do they exit the chain?
superior cervical ganglia; external and internal carotid arteries which form plexuses on major arteries of head
at which region of the spinal cord do the fibers traveling to the thoracic cavity synapse? Via which nerves do they exit the sympathetic chain? How do they reach their targets?
C1-T5; cardiac nerves; cardiac/pulmonary/esophageal plexuses
what is unique about the fibers traveling to abdominal or pelvic cavities?
they exit the sympathetic chain without synapsing
via which nerves do fibers traveling to abdominal or pelvic cavities exit the sympathetic chain? Which plexuses do they enter? Where do they synapse?
splanchnic nerves; aortic and pelvic plexuses; prevertebral ganglia
which targets of the SNS are accessed via the grey ramus communicans?
blood vessels, arrector pili muscles, and sweat glands in the limbs/body wall
where are white rami communicans located? Grey?
from T1-L2/3; all along sympathetic chain
where are preganglionic cell bodies of parasympathetic neurons found?
in brainstem(associated with certain cranial nerves) or in 2nd-4th sacral segment of the spinal cord
what is the name for the nerves in which parasympathetic fibers from sacral segments arise?
pelvic splanchnic nerves
which cranial nerves accommodate the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originating in the brainstem?
III, VII, IX, X
where do parasympathetic preganglionic fibers synapse?
in parasympathetic ganglia that are located throughout the body
are the parasympathetic ganglia located near to or far from the target organs or glands?
near to
are postganglionic parasympathetic fibers shorter or longer than preganglionic fibers?
shorter
what is the biggest difference between the targets of parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons?
parasympathetic neurons do not travel to limbs or body wall
what is the primary role of most GVA fibers?
unconscious reflexes
what are examples of visceral sensations?
pain, distention, cramps
is visceral pain well or poorly localized?
poorly
to where is visceral pain oftern referred?
to a cutaneous site
what does it mean to say that certain visceral structures are insensitive to pain?
their GVA fibers do not carry pain sensations
in general do GVA pain fibers travel with sympathetic or parasympathetic fibers? GVA reflex fibers?
sympathetic; parasympathetic
what is the most important rule when considering the path of GVA neurons to CNS?
they take the shortest path
what is the shape of the GVA neurons? Cell bodies are normally located where?
pseudounipolar; dorsal root ganglia
are GVA fibers part of the ANS?
no
where are cell bodies of GVA fibers in cranial nerves located?
in special sensory ganglia in the head