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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are two other names for joint in the human body?
articulations, arthroses
what are the 3 functions of joints?
differential growth, transmission of forces, movement
what is another term for fixed joints? What are the two categories of fixed joints?
synarthroses; fibrous joints and cartilaginous joints
what is another term for moveable joints? What is the name for the joints in this group?
diarthroses; synovial joints
most joints in the extremities are of which variety?
what kind of joint is a suture joint? Give an example.
fibrous joint; sutures of skull
what kind of joint is a syndesmoses joint? Give an example.
fibrous joint; distal tibiofibular joint
what kind of joint is a gomphosis joint? Give an example.
fibrous joint; teeth in aveolar process
what kind of joint is a synchondroses joint? Give an example.
cartilaginous joint; epiphyseal plate
what kind of joint is a symphyses joint? Give an example.
cartilaginous joint; symphysis pubis, intervertebral discs
what kind of joint is a pivot (trochoid) joint? Give an example.
MONAXIAL synovial joint; atlantoaxial and proximal radioulnar
what kind of joint is a plane (gliding) joint? Give an example.
MONAXIAL synovial joint; intercarpal and intertarsal joint
what kind of joint is a hinge (ginglymus) joint? Give an example.
MONAXIAL synovial joint; interphalyngeal and humeroulnar
what kind of joint is a saddle joint? Give an example.
BIAXIAL synovial joint; carpometacarpal joint of thumb
what kind of joint is a condylar joint? Give an example.
BIAXIAL synovial joint; radiocarpal, metacarpophalyngeal
what kind of joint is a ball-and-socket joint? Give an example.
MULTIAXIAL synovial joint; shoulder and hip joint
what type of substance unites the bones in fibrous joints? In cartilaginous joints?
CT, cartilage
sutures of the skull ossify to become what?
in syndesmoses, what hold together bones?
fibrous cord or interosseus ligament
gomphoses connect teeth in maxillar and mandible by which type of fiber?
collagenous ligaments
in which plane of the body are symphyses normally located?
what kind of tissue connects bone in symphyses?
ligaments, hyaline, fibrocartilage
what is the name for the hyaline cartilage found in synovial joints?
articular cartilage
the articular capsule is composed of how many membranes?
what are the names of the two membranes of the articular capsule? Which is harder?
fibrous membrane and synovial membrane; fibrous membrane
the fluid filling a synovial joint is called what? By which structure is it produced?
synovial fluid; synovial membrane
what is the name for the cavity which is filled with synovial fluid?
articular cavity
ligaments in synovial joints serve what purpose?
prevent excessive or abnormal movement in the joint
what are the two categories of ligaments in synovial joints (give both names for each)? Which is in charge of providing support to fibrous membrane?
capsular (intrinsic) and accesory (extrinsic); capsular (intrinsic)
what are the two categories or extrinsic (accessory) ligaments in synovial joints?
extracapsular and intracapsular
what does Hilton's law state regarding innervation of joints?
nerves supplying a joint also supply the muscles that move that joint.
when are nerves in joint stimulated?
when the capsule becomes taut due to extremes of movement
which part of the joint relays sensory information via nerves?
fibrous membrane and ligaments
by which structure are synovial joints vascularized?
subsynovial plexuses
what are articular discs and menisci?
fibrocartilage that attaches to the fibrous capsule and divides the joint cavity
what is the labrum in a synovial joint?
fibrocartilage annular rim which serves to deepen the socket of ball and socket articulations
fat pads serve what role in synovial joints?
fill recesses
what is a bursa?
synovial membrane located beyond the fibrous membrane of the capsule and situated in places where friction is likely to develop
along which three axes can movement occur in synovial joints?
coronal plane, sagittal plane, and longitudinal axis
movement in coronal place is also called what? Sagittal plane? Longitudinal axis?
abduction/adduction; flexion/extension; internal/external rotation
circumduction is the combination of which 4 movements?
flexsion, extension, adduction, abduction
what determines how many axes of rotation a joint will allow?
the shape of the joint
do ligaments limit the normal range of a motion for a joint?
no, they do resist excessive of abnormal movement
the extent of movement at a given joint depends on which two muscles?
agonist and synergist
which two classes of mechanicl levers are most prevalent in the body?
1st (EFR) and 3rd (FER)
which packing of joints, loose or close, exposes joints to trauma?
which joints are in close-packing positions when standing to maintain erect posture without huge E expenditure?
knee and hip
is there more or less congruence of articular surfaces in loose than close packed joints? Does this increase or decrease friction?
less; decrease
which part of a joint does a sprain involve? Is there any dislocation involved?
ligament; no
what occurs in a strain?
ligaments are stretched but not torn
what is a subluxation?
lax, stretched ligaments
what is a joint dislocation?
when the ligaments are torn and the bone displaced
which ligamentous feature is always seen in a hinge joint?
2 collateral ligaments.
what is eccentric contraction of a muscle?
when a muscle lengthens upon contraction