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28 Cards in this Set

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parallel pattern
fasciculi || with longitudinal axis, terminate at either end in flat tendons, ie stylohyoid muscle
modified parallel pattern
fusiform, fasciculi nearly || like || fasciculi but muscle tapers to tendon, i.e. biceps brachii
convergent pattern
broad origin of fasciculi converges to a narrow, restricted insertion, i.e. pectoralis major
pennate pattern
penna=feather, fasciculi are short in relation to entire muscle length, tendon exceeds length of muscle, fasciculi directed obliquely toward tendon
unipennate
fasciculi only on one side of tendon
bipennate
fasciculi on both sides of tendon
multipennate
several tendons, fibers attach obliquely
circular pattern
fasciculi oriented in a circular pattern, orbicularis oris
rectus
muscle is straight usually || to midline, i.e. rectus abdominus, rectus femoris
transverse
muscle perpendicular to midline, i.e. transversus abdominus
oblique
muscle lies diagonal to the midline, i.e. external abdominal oblique
criteria for muscle nomenclature
direction of fibers, location, size, number of origins, shape, origin and inserion, action, specific movements
maximus
largest, i.e. gluteus maximus
minimus
smallest
longus
long
brevis
short
latissimus
widest
biceps
two origins, coracoid procees of scapula, superglenoid tubercle
triceps
three origins, infraglenoid tubercle, humerus-posterior aspect, humerus-lateral aspect
flexor
decreases anterior angle at joint-flexion
extensor
increases anterior angle at joint-extension
abductor
away form midline-abduction
adductor
toward midline-adduction
levator
upward movement-elevation
depressor
downward movement-depression
supinator
palm to interior-supination
pronator
turns palm posterior-prontation
sphincter
squeezes or decreases size of an orifice