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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Composition of Plasma
liquid portion of blood
-serum remains after
plasma clots
Erythrocyte Production
-development (3-5) days
-2.5 million RBC's/sec
-first committed cell-erythorcyte colony forming unit
-Erythroblasts multiply & synthesize hemoglobin
-discard nucleus/form a reticulocyte
Erythrocyte life span
120 days from time produced
Erythrocyte structure
-Heme Groups (conjugate with each protein chain, binds O2)
-Glovins-4 protein chains
(2 alpha, 2 beta)
Types of Anemia
-inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis
-Hemorrhagic Anemias
-Hemolytic anemias
Anemia - Effects
-tissue hypoxia and necrosis (Short of breath)
-low blood osmolarity (tissue edema)
-low blood viscosity (Heart races, pressure drops)
an excess of RBC
Two types of Polcycthemia
-primary (cancer of erythropoietic cell line)
-secondary (dehydration, emphysema, high altitude etc)
Erythrocyte (RBC) Function
-gas transport-major function
-carbonic anhydrase (CAH)
growth factor, regulates formation of RBC
Erythropoietin (EPO)
produced by kidneys, increase RBC precursors
Thrombopoietin (TPO)
hormone from liver stimulates platelet formation
local hormones of bone marrow
Medical Uses of EPO
very effective in treating decreased RBC production of end-stage kidney disease
Medical Uses of Thrombopoietin
helps prevent platelet depletion during chemotherapy
Coagulation Pathways
-Extrinsic Pathway
-intrinsic pathway
-calcium required for pathway
Extrinsic Pathway
-initiated by tissue thromboplastin
-cascade to Factor Vii, V, and X
Intrinsic Pathway
-initiated by factor XII
-cascade to factor XI to IX to VIII to X
Completion of Coagulation
-activation of Factor X
-Prothrombin activator
-positive feedback
Genetic lack of any clotting factor affects coagulation
(genetic defect)
WBCs (different from erythrocyte-has no nucleus
-protect against pathogens
-5,000-10,000 WBC/uL
Leukocyte Descriptions
-granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukotytes)
3 kinds of Granulocytes
-neutrophils (60-70%)
-eosinophils (2-4%)
-basophils (<1%)
2 kinds of Agranulocytes
-lymphocytes (25-33%)
-monocytes (3-8%)
Function of Neutrophils
(increase in bacterial infections)
-phagocytosis of bacateria
-release antimicrobial chemicals
Function of Eosinophils
(increase in parasitic infections or allergies)
-phagocytosis of antigen-antibody complexes, allergens and imflammatory chemicals
-release enzymes to destroy parasites
Function of Basophils
(Increase in diverse chicken pox, sinusitis, diabetes)

-secrete histimine
-secrete heparin
Function of Lymphocytes
increase in diverse infections and immune responses

-present antigensto active other immmune cells
Functions of monocytes
increase in viral infections and inflammation

-differentiate into macrophages
Leukocyte Disorders
low WBC count (< 5000/uL)
high WBC count (>10,000/uL)
cancer of hemopoietic tissue
T Lymphocytes complete development in
Small fragments of megakaryocyte cytoplasm
Function of Platelets
-secrete clotting/growth factors for vessel repair
-initiate formation of clot-dissolving enzyme
-phagocytize bacteria
-attract neutrophils and monocytes to sites of inflammation
-genetic lack of any clotting factor affects coagulation
The 3 layers of the heart wall
Seros membrane covers heart
-thick muscular layer
-fibrous skeleton (collagenous and elastic fibers)
Smooth inner lining
Heart Valves
-Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
-Semilunar Valves
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
-right AV valve (3 cusps)(Tricuspid valve)
-left AV valve (2 cusps)
(mitral, bicuspid valve)
-chordae tendineae (cords connect AV valves to papillary muscles
Semilunar Valves

-pulmonary: right ventricle into pulmonary trunk
-aortic: from left ventricle into aorta
Angina pectoris
-partial obstruction of coronary blood flow, can cause chest pain
-pain caused by ischemia, often activity dependent
Mycardial Infarction
-complete obstruction causes death of cardiac cells in affecte area
-pain or pressure in chest that radiates down left arm
Venous Drainage of Heart
- 20% drains directyl into right atrium and ventricle via the besian veins
- 80% returns to right atrium via (Great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, left marginal vein, coronary sinus)
Cardiac Output
heart rate X stroke volume
Cardiac reserve
difference between a persons maximum and resting (CO) Cardiac output
surge of pressure in artery
Resting adult HR above 100
-amount of tension in ventricle myocardium before in contracts
Preload causes
force of contraction
Frank-Starling Law of heart
SV (Stoke Volume) EDV
pressure in arteries abovesemilunar valves opposes opening or valves
Anatomy of Blood Vessels
- arteries carry blood away from heart
- veins carry blood back to heart
- capillaries connect smallest arteries to veins
contaction fource for a given preload
Neural Control:Chemoreflex
* Chemireceptors in aortic bodies and carotid bodies
* autonomic response to changes in blood chemistry
-pH, O2, CO2
-primary role:adjust