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181 Cards in this Set

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A constellation of rare viral, fungal, bacerial, and protozoal infections appearing years after invasion of the body by the human immunodeficiency virus. Destroys helper T-cells, impairs B-cells, and macrophages, and creates immune vulnerability to rare infections.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Signs and Symptoms of AIDS
vague complaints such as fever, sweating, muscle and joint pain, lasting a few days to a week or two
Treatment of AIDS
"triple therapy"
Transplants
Grafts
Main problem in transplants
Rejection
Drugs used to supress rejection by destroying the growth of lymphocytes
Immunosuppressive agents
Abnormal growth
tumor
non invasive tumor
benign
spreads to another site in the body
metastasize
cancerous
malignant
abnormal replication
mutation
Most common cancer
Lung cancer
increases the number of cell mutants
carcinogen
consists of two portions, the formed elements and the liquid plasma
whole blood
constitutes about 55% and contains many dissolved substances.
plasma
formed elements in blood
RBC
WBC
Platlets
percentage of RBC
hematocrit
where blood cells are mainly flormed
marrow of bones of the chest, vertabrae, and pelvis
stages of development of blood cells in red marrow
hemopoiesis
red cells
erythrocytes
the only functional cell without a nucleus
RBC
requires both vitamin b-12 and folic acid
RBC
lack of oxygen
hypoxia
main function of red cells
carry oxygen
oxygen is carried bound to
iron
normal hemoglobin values
males 14-18
females 12-16
second function of red cells
processing CO2 from tissues
CO2 is transported by
plasma
an important acid base buffer
hemoglobin
developing cells
blast cells
blood types present in
RBC
newly formed red cells which contain small fragments of a nucleus
reticulocytes
aging red cells are destroyed by
phagocytes
phagocytic activity of endothelial cells
tissue macrophage system
bilirubin accumulated in the bloodstream due to
liver damage/failure
white cells
leukocytes
normal WBC count
5 to 10 thousand
low WBC count
leukopenia
high WBC count
leukocytosis
main function of WBC
combat infection
have nuclei that appear segmented
granulocytes
the main phagocyte in acute bacterial infections
neutrophil
phagocytizes antigen antigenantibody complexes- increases in parasitic and allergic reactions such as asthma
eosinophil
contains histamine, and its structure is similar to the mast cell, involved in allergic reactions
basophil
no granules in cytoplasm
agranulocytes
in immune reactions- often in viral infections
lymphocytes
largest white cell- seen in chronic diseases
monocytes
small cell fragments originating from giant cells in the bone marrow
platelets
necessary for normal blood clotting
platelets
what occurs when antigens are placed with incompatible antibodies
agglutination
universal receiver
AB Blood Type
Universal donor
O Blood type
done between cells and plasma of both donor and recipient to detect other antigens and antibodies as well as previous sensitizations
cross-matching
D Antigen is
Rh factor
an Rh negative person can give blood to...
an Rh postive person
an Rh postive person can never give blood to...
an Rh negative person
Human immune globulin (Rho-gam)
artificial antibodies that act against Rh factor
the arrest of bleeding
hemostasis
local vasoconstriction
the first step after a vessel is injured
platelets plug the injured vessel wall
platelet aggregation
damaged tissue releases a substance with an enzyme-effect thromboplastin, which activates factor 7 then 10 which initiates clotting in 12 to 15 seconds
first step in blood coagulation
the system that activates enough factor 10 to produce a clot within 5 to 10 minutes
intrinsic system
catalyses the formation of prothrombin in the liver
vitamin K
clot dissolving
fibrinolytic
dissolves the clot
plasmin
a genetic defect of any of the clotting factors
hemophilia
weakened vessel walls
vitamin K deficiency
low platelets
thrombocytopenia
vitamin K is not able to contribute to the formation of prothrombin
liver disease
the coagulation mechanisms is inadvertently triggered causing inproper clotting and depletion of clotting factors and platelets
disseminated intrvascular coagulation (DIC)
certain drugs that cause bleeding
anticoagulant
aspirin
detects low platelets
complete blood count (CBC)
measures defects in the intrinsic system, used to monitor patients on heparin
partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
tests the extrinsic system, used to evaluate those with liver disease
prothrombin time (PT)
developed by WHO to standardize various reagents used in PT determinations
international normalized ration (INR)
drug that inhibits thrombin
heparin
given sub-Q
low molecular weight heparin
used in emergency situations when blood is too thin due to heparin
protamine
block the formation by vitamin K of prothrombin in the liver, monitored by PT time
warfarin
movement of a substance from an area of a higher to an area of a lower concentration
diffusion
fluid is forced through a membrane from high pressure on one side (e.g. capillary)
filtration
movement of fluid (solvent) through a semipermeable membrane separating different concentrations of substances (solute)
osmosis
moves mfrom low to high concentration
osmosis
substances which, when placed in a solution, are decomposed and conduct an electric current
electrolytes
ions with a positive charge
cations
ions with a negative charge
anions
the unit of measurement for fluid volume
mililiter
1000 ml equals
1 liter
the chemical combining power of an ion based on the number of charges
milliequivalent (mEq)
unit of weight of a substance
milligram (mg)
30 Liters
Main cation- Potassium
Main Anion- PO4
Intracellular Fluid
15 Liters
Main cation- Sodium
Main anion- chloride
Extracellular Fluid
semipermeable membranes in the body
red and white blood cells and capillary membrane
osmotic pressure in plasma and red cells are in equilibrium
isotonic
concentration higher outside the cell and the fluid moves into the cell
hypotonic solutions
red cells burst
hemolysis
higher concentration inside the cell then outside and the fluid moves outside the cell
hypertonic solution
red cells shrivel
crenation
diabetes patients losing glucose in the urine is an example of
osmosis
plasma portiens lowered in the body creating a hypotonic plasma, resulting in the movement of fluid into the tissue spaces
liver and kidney disease
contains ions and most closely resembles plasma
Ringer's solution
the exchange of nutrients and waste products between blood and tissue cells is an important part of bodily functioning and utilizes three basics:
osmosis
filtration
diffusion
at the arteriole end of the capillary the blood pressure is about
37 mmHg
as blood moves down the capillary the hydrostatic pressure
declines
at the venule end of the capillary. the hydrostatic pressure is about
17 mm Hg
the main osmotically active solute in the extracellular space
sodium
increase in sodium causes
increase in water gain and high blood pressure
most commonly caused by diarrhea, elderly paitients, failure to drink, sweating, vomiting
hypernatremia
most common cause of increased body water due to heart failure , renal failure, etc
hyponatremia
necessary for transmission of nerve and muscle impulses, and accompanies glucose into the cell in the presesnce of insulin. critical for the heart
potassium
serious and occasionally life threatening
hyperkalemia
main cause from diuretics and diarrhea
hypokalemia
necessary for blood clotting, muscle and nerve impulse, regulated by a metabolite of vitamin D
calcium
excessive milk drinking and taking too much vitamin D
hypercalcemia
main cause a slight decrease in blood calcium is a decrease in plasma protein
hypocalcemia
average adult loses how many liters per day
2-3
.9% NaCl
normal saline
D51/4NS
most commonly used maintainance solution...used a lot in pediatrics
tissue fluid that bathes the cells
lymph
drains the upper right half of the body
right lymphatic duct
drains the rest of the body and empties into the left subclavian vein
thoracic duct
contain macrophages, B and T lymphocytes and plasma cells.
lymph nodes
their main function is to prevent bacteria and viruses from gaining access to the bloodstream
lymph nodes
main cation of intracellular fluid
potassium
main anion of intracellular fluid
bicarbonate
main cation of extracellular fluid
sodium
main anion of extracellular fluid
chloride
pressure exerted by the plasma proteins
osmotic pressure
blood pressure
hydrostatic pressure
important electrolytes
sodium
chloride
potassium
calcium
bicarbonate
loss of total body water from decreased output by failure to drink in debilated and older patients, and from diarrhea and vomiting
hypernatremia
patients with sepsis, renal failure, heart failure, cirrhosis and malnutrition
hyponatremia
normal potassium range
3.5 to 5 meq
necessary for transmission of nerve and mucle impulses and accompanies glucose into the cell in the presence of insulin. critical in heart muscle contractoin
potassium
main cause diuretics
hypokalemia
most common cause burns and renal failure
hyperkalemia
regulated by a metabolite of vitamin D
calcium
regulates parathyroid homrmone release
calcium
necessary for transmission of the muscle and nerve impuse, muscle contration
calcium
drinking too much milk, too much vitamin D
hypercalcemia
decrease in plasma protein
hypocalcemia
hypervenilation
respiratory alkalosis
carpopedal spasm caused by
hypocalcemia
average adult loses
2-3 liters of water per day
lymph organs
spleen
thymus
tonsils
largest lymph organ of the body
spleen
main function of lymph organs
destroy old blood cells
supply B and T lymphocytes
lack of red cells, or red cell substances such as hemoglobin or iron
anemia
cell distruction (sickle cell)
hemolytic anemia
cause of dcreased production of red cells (nutrition)
iron deficiency
seen in those taking chemotherapeutic agents for cancer
bone marrow suppression
accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in tissue spaces
edema
causes of edema
heart failure, liver failure, kidney failure, inflammation
following a mastectomy, removal of axillary lymph organs, partially blocked drainage and arm swelling
lymphedema
cancer of the lymph tissue
Hodgkin's disease
cancer of blood forming tissue resulting in increase mature and immature white cells in the blood
leukemia
pericardium
serous sac surrounding the heart
heart muscle
myocardium
the thin inner lining of the heart
endothelium
carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs
pulmonary trunk
carries oxygen-rich blood to the general circulation
aorta
brings oxygen poor blood to the right atrium
superior vena cava
stimulation of sympathetic nerves
increases heart rate
stimulation of parasympathetic nerves
decrease heart rate
depolarization of the atrium
P wave
depolarization of the ventricle
QRS wave
repolarization of the ventricle
T wave
an area of muscle in the upper right atrium, the pacemaker
sino-atrial node
relaxation of the ventricles during filling
diastole
contraction of the atria, moing blood into the ventricles
atrial systole
contraction of the ventricles
ventricular systole
first sound "lub"
closure of the atrioventricular valve
second sound "dup"
closure of the semilunar valves
amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle per minute
cardiac output
amount of blood ejected in one beat
stroke volume
the sound of blood flowing through an abnormal opening
murmur
listening to the heart with a stethoscope
auscultation
valves do not open properly
stenosis
valves do not close properly
insufficiency
murmor before the second sound
systolic
murmur after second sound
diastolic