Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the functions the skeleton provides?
what does skeletal support do?
provides an internal frame called an endoskeleton and allows for attachment of skeltal muscle
What are some important things with bone movement?
Shapes of articulating surfaces determines the range and direction of movement
What are some important things to do with the protection bone provides?
Protects the cranium, vertebral column, the thorax and a wealth of vital organs
What is the importance of bone storage?
-Stores calcium which is needed for bone strength, nerve conductivity, and many other functions
-Stores phosphorus
-Stores adipose for energy
known as yellow marrow
What is another name of stored calcium and what does it do?
Hydroxyapatite-the crystal for of calcium which is stored in bones.
What is the importance of hemopoises/hematopoises?
Is important to the creation of blood cells.
Name the typical structures of a typical long bone?
Medullary Cavity
Articular Cartilage
What is the diaphysis?
The shaft (middle part) of a long bone comprised primarily of compact bone
What are the parts to the medullary cavity?
Yellow marrow - adipose
Endosteum - lining to the walls of the medullary cavity
What are the parts to endosteum?
Osteoprogenitor cells - cells that give rise to new cells.
Osteoblasts - cells that produce bone matrix
Osteoclasts - cells that tear down bone matrix to be replaced by new matric
What is the epiphyses(epishysis)?
Cancellous (spongy) secondary center of ossification (bone formation) usually located at the ends of long bones
What is the perioesteum?
Contributes to bone growth, bone repair, and surrounds the bone with a membrane of blood vessels. Also the periosteum provides a place where ligaments and tendons connect.
Name the structures of the periosteum.
Outer layer
Inner Layer
Blood Vessels
What is the function of the outer layer of the periosteum?
Outer layer - provides a protective layer of the periosteum which contains fiberous connective tissue
What does the inner layer do for the periosteum?
inner layer-delicate thin layer which makes bone cells(osteoprogenitor cells) and osteoblasts which makes bone matrix
What do blood vessels do for the periosteum?
-Has lymphatic vessels which carry white blood cells into and out of the bone.
-Has nerves to tell the brain when there are problems with the bone (pain).
-Has Sharpey's fibers which are cables that anchor the periosteum to the bone.
What is the Metaphysis?
It is the widened 'transition zone' where the epiphysis and the diaphysis meet. "partition"
What are the parts of the Metaphysis?
The epiphyseal plate (hyaline cartilage)
The epiphyseal line (fused joint)
What is the epiphyseal plate?
made of hyaline cartilage and is know as the "growth plate." Partitions the epiphysis and the diaphysis in younger/developing bones.
What is the epiphyseal line?
It is a fused joint between the epiphysis and the diaphysis when bone "closes up shop" and stops growing.
What is articular cartilage?
It is joint cartilage that is on the ends of long bones (mostly)
-comprised of hyaline cartilage
-absorbs stress
-provdes cushion
What are the ways to classify joints?
By their structure and by their function
What are some ways to classify a bone by its structure?
1. By its connective tissue between articulating surfaces of bones
2.By the presence of space between the articulating joints.
Name some ways to classify a bone by its function and give examples.
By describing its degree of movement or the amount of flexibility it has.
What are synarthorses?
aka:Synarthotic joints
Bones that dont move at all.
very very minimal space between joints
ex: Skull
What are amphiarthrses?
aka:Amphiarthrotic joints
Bones that move very little and provide 'amphi-' both strength and flexibility in joints.
What are diathroses?
aka:Diathrotic joints
Freely movable joints which have fluid filled joint cavities
Name all the fiberous joints and tell me their functional characteristic
a.sutures: synarthrotic
b.syndesmoses: amphiarthrotic
c.gomphoses: synarthrotic
Tell me what sutures are and give and example of one.
They're synarthrotic joints = no movement. ex:cranial bone.
Some fiberous joints and some cartilagenous joints develop into synostoses. What are synostoses?
when the ends of bones grow together/fuse. ex:left and right frontal bone in a fetal skull, the fusion of sacral bones, the fusion of the os-coxa.
Tell me what syndesmoses are and give an example of one.
Theyre amphiarthrotic joints = little movement.
1.presence of a ligament or interosseous tissue membrane ONE OR THE OTHER...NOT BOTH. ex: tibiofibular joint (ankle) /distal end
Tell me what gomphoses are and give an example of one.
They're synarthrotic joints = no movement. GOM = GUMS
1.Presence of periodontal ligament=holds each bone in its bony socket.
What are Cartilaginous Joints?
they have articular cartilage, but no joint cavity. They have very little movement.
Name all of the cartilaginous joints and give their functions.
a.Synchondroses: synarthotic=no movement
b.Symphyses: amphiarthrotic=very little movement
What is synchondroses?
synarthrotic=no movement for strength
1.presence of hyaline cartilage
2.ex:epiphyseal plate and ribs to sternum
What are synovial joints?
fluid filled (capsule-enclosed) joint cavity/diathrotic (think cv-joints in car)
What are synovial joints comprised of?
1.articular cartilage
2.joint cavity
3.articular capsule/joint capsule
4.accessory ligaments
5.articular discs
What is articular cartilage?
comprised of hyaline cartilage/provides smooth articulating surfaces to minimize friction in joints
What is a joint cavity?
Capsule-enclosed compartment filled with synovial (serous) fluid
What is an articular capsule/joint capsule?
it's a double-layered envelope that encloses the joint cavity.
Comprised of:
a.fiberous capsule
b.synovial(sereus) membrane
What is a fiberous capsule?
dense fiberous connective tissue that covers the outmost part of the capsule. helps prevent dislocation/provides stability
What is a synovial (serous) membrane
holds in synovial fluid. Inner lining of the articular capsule. Produces synovial fluid.

What are accessory ligaments comprised of?
capsular ligament
extracapsular ligament
intracapsular ligament
what is a capsular ligament
embedded in the wall of the capsule of a ligament (fiberous capsule made of dense fiberous connective tissue)
what is an extracapsular ligament?
resides outside of the fiberous capsule of a ligament
What is an intracapsular ligament?
ligament inside of the fiberous capsule
What is an articular disc?
compsied of a meniscus - pads of fibrocartilage that bears great weight in things like the knee. shock absorber which adds stability.
What is a bursae?
Flattened fiberous sacks that cushion and contain synovial fluid.