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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the skin the body's largest organ
a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (skin)
majority of cells , produce new epidermal cells, sythesize the keratin of the skin
the deper of the two layers of the ksin underlying the epidermis and composed of fibrous connective tissue
reticular layer
made of iffregular connective tissue
papillary layer
dermal papillary form the fingerprint increases the sense of touch
rule of nines
determines fluid loss
a layer of connective tissue tissue dep to the skin also called superficial fascia, subcuutaneous tissue or subcutaneous fat
eccrine sweat glands
sweat glands that function in evaporative cooling widely distributed over the body surface, open by ducts onto the skin surface
apocrine sweat glands
found in axillary and genital areas; secretions contain water, salt, urea and lipds duct empty into hair follicles BO
sebaceous glands (sweat)
sebrum oil producting glands acne black heads
ceruminous (sweat)glands
ear wax
a yellowish color of the skin, corneas, mucous membranes, and body fluids due to an excessive concentration of bilirubin, usually indicative of a liver disease, obstructed bile secretion, or hemolytic disease
a bluish color of the skin and mucous membranes due to ischemia or hypoxemia
a mass of clotted blood in the tissues, forms a bruise when visible through the skin
form pigment=melanin
langerhans cells
macrophages-immune system
malignant melanoma
cancer of the melanocytes the most dangerous skin cancer, appears as a spreading brown to black patch that metastasizes rapidly, survival rate is 50% with early detection, 5% of all skin cancer
the utaneous membrane made of epidermis and dermis
the subcutaneous membrane layer
accessory organs
sweat glands(eccrine &
hair and nails
major function of skin
1. protection
2.temperature regulation (sweat glands and vascular system)
3. sensory recption-nerve endings for pain & pressure
4. vit D sythesis interactionof sunlight and cholesterol needed for Ca++ absorption by the intestines
Minor functin of skin
1 blood resevoir
2 excretin sweat
three layers of integument
a.hypodermis-below the
dermis ;sub q layer
w/adipose tissue,
collagen, elastic fibers,
blood vessels & special
b.dermis-below the epidermis; made of dense irregular connective tissue, lood vessels, sweat glands & sebaceous glands
papillar layer-form fingerprint increae the sense of touch
reticular layer=irregular connective tissue(most oof the dermis
c. epidermis-oter most layer of the ksin stratified squamous cells, avascular, five layers
tissue types and functions
subcutantous layer
areolar and adipose tissue
funtion to bind the
integument to the muscle
and store energy
dermis-layers and tissues
a. reticular-most of
dermis; dense irregular
tissue; Pacinian
corpusclues(deep presure)
b. papillary-ridges for
fingerprint; meissners
corpuscles(light presure)
a.keratinocyes-primary cell
b.melanocytes-form pigment
d. merkel-nerve for touch
2 layer
1.basal-stratum basal
2.spiny-stratum spinosum
3.grainy layer-stratum granulosm
4.clear cell-stratum lucidum
5.cornified-stratum corneum
thick skin 5 layers
thin skin 4 layers no lucidum
1 cornified Cell layer
stratum corneum
thick layer of dead squamous cells
2. clear cell layer
stratum lucidum
found only in thick skin no melanin, where calouses build up
3. grainy layer
stratum granulosm
thin layer contain sgranuls of melanin and glycolipids (waterproofing)
4. spiny cell layer
stratum spinosum
Langerhan cells fight infectin, shpe of cells is caused by strong adhesion junctions(spiny)
5.Basal (germinating) Cell layer
Straum Basal
cuboidal; rapid cell division; specialized cells, Merkel and melanocyts
accessory organs
1. reticular layer: depest skin layer, dens irregular connectivetissue
a. sense receptor(pacinian corpuscle)
b. hair follicles-connected to a band of smooth muscle(Arector pili)
c. sweat glands-sudoriferous glands-for thermal regulation
2. Papillary Layer;very uneven upper layer
a. dermal papillae-fingerprint ridges
b.sense receptor-meissner's corpuscle pigmentation
b. carotene in stratum corneum and adipose tissue needed to pruce vA (night vision)
c. hemoglobin
Pigment chemicals-diseased state
jaundice=liver malfunction
malfunction "bronzing of
skin"(JFK) failure to
produce aldosterone
skin accessory organs
hair, nails, sweat glands
derived from epidermis but resides inthe dermis;shaft, bulb, root;concentric layers:cuticle(outermost), cortex, and medulla
types of hair
color melanin, hemosiderin(attracts iron yello, rust, brown) trichosiderin(red)
shape ribbonlike=kinky; oval=silky & wavy; round= straight and coarse
VELLUS hair=pale& fine hair(body hair kids and females)
TERMINAL hair=coarser,longer,darker(axillary,pubic,male,face, chest,arms,legs)
growth rate of hair
2.5 mm per week;influenced by nutrition&hormoes; excess in adrogens+hair growth
baldness alopecia
hair loss;protein deficient, chemo,radiation,blood thinnrs
high fever, emotional trauma excessive vit a
male pattern-genetics, male hormones
development as a scalelike modifiction of the hair

to help pick up objects and scratch
sudoriferous glands
eccrine (merocrine) gland
all over body, mostly h2o salt urea, thrmo regulator, ducts empty onto skin surface
oily pimples, acne, black heads
axillary and genital hxo, salt urea, proteins lipids ducts empty into hair follicles
specialized sweat gland secrete milk
modified apocrine sweat gland, located inthe lining of the external ear canal makes earwax
rule of nines
extimating the volume of fluid lost by computing the percentage of body surface burned. the body divided into 11 areas, each accounting of 9% of total bodyarea plus an additional area the genitals is 1%
First degree burn
only epidermis damaged; swelling and pain;
heal in 2-3 days
Second degree burn
epidermis & upper dermis
mimic 1st degree w blisters
healing in 3-4 weeks
Basal Cell Carcinoma
least malignant & most common form of skin cancer cells of the stratum basale invade th edermis and epidermis: 99: cure; involves areas of body exposed to sunlight
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum; grow rapdi and meastasize to lump[h nodes cure surgery and radiation
most dangerous appears as a spreading brown toblack patch that metastasizes quickl survival rate 50% is 5% of all skin cancers
ABCDE rule
A=asymmetry-sides don't match
B-border irregularity
D=diamete larger than 6mm
E=elevate-above skin surface