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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anatomy
study of form or structure
physiology
study of body structures
homeostasis
ability to maintain relatively stable internal environment regardless of external environment(within very narrow ranges, is active)
boundary maintenance
in the mainteinace of life a characteriestic of living organisms so the internal environment remians distinct from the external environment. both at cell and organism level.
positive feedback loop
self amplifying the response enhances the original stimulus+accelerates the activity ie birthing process
negative feedback loop
(most common) the output of system decreases the input(original stimulus) into the system. works to maintain homeostasis ie blood glucose
atom
the smallest unit of an element that can exist and still have the properties of the element; atoms form molecules in a compound
molecule
two or more atoms bonded together
ion
an electically charged atom
acid
release hydrogen ions (H)
1-6
base
release hydoxide ions (OH)
8-14
pH
the measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution
1-14
amino acid
building block of proteins; the end product of protien digestion
peptide bond
a group of four covalently bonded atoms that links two amino acides in a protien or othe pepetide
monosaccharide
a simple sugar or sugar monomer (glucose, fructose galactose)
polysaccharide
a ploymer of simple sugars (glycogen, starch and cellulose)
fatty acid
organic molecule of even # of carbon atoms with a carboxyl group at one end and a methyl group at the other (triglycerides and phospholipids)
triglyceride
a lipid composed of three fatty acids joined to a glycerol
DNA(deoxyribose nucleic acid)
a very large nucleotide polymer that carries the genes of a cell
ATP (adenosine tri phosphate)
functions as a universal energy transfer molecule
Neutral atom
has no overall electrical charge # of positive charges = # of negative charges
Ion
electrically charged atom
cation
positive charge ion(loses electrons)
anion
negative charged (gains electrons)
atomic mass
sum of number of protons + number of neutrons
AM=P+N
atomic number
number of protons
number of protons=number of electrons
OCTET RULE
in order for an atom to be chemicatlly stable there needs to be eight electrons in its outer most orbital
molecule
two or more atoms bonded together
compound
two or more different atoms (elements) are bonded
inorganic comounds
made of non-carbon elements (periodic table)
organic compounds
uses carbon as the mjor structural element
covalent bonding
sharing of electrons between atoms
Polar covalent bonding
unequal sharing of electrons (enables to disolve in H20)
ionic bonding
atrraction of oppositely charged atoms
hydrogen bonding
formed by ionic attraction of hydrogen ion and a negative charge on anothe molecule ie wate and salt
carbohydrates
(C,H,O)
ratio of H to O is always 2-1
structural unit (monomer) is monosaccharide
function quick energy
(starch, sugar, glucose)
Proteins
(CHON)
structural unit-amino acids(20)
function-enzymes(regulate chmical reaction quicker slower release engergy, hormones(messengers) building materials
special bond between amino group and caboxyl group=peptide bond
lipids
C,H,O
structural unit=fatty acids(fat)
saturated fats=all single hydrogen bonds (bad for health, animal fat)
saturated fats=one or more double bonds(good for you)plant oil;
function=sorage of large quantities of energy,steriods
nucleic acids
A,T,C,G
structural units=nucleotide
function=genetic codes, protein senthesis
ATP special energy unit for all reactions
pH scale
range is 1-14
acid=1-6 base=8-14neutral=7
acids release hydrogen ions H
bases release hydroxide ions OH
buffer is a substance that reis changes in the pH
solution
made of two components
solute-substance that is dissolved (salt)
solvent-substances which dissolves the solute(water)
colloids
are solutions which have solutes taht are large and will notpast through membranes : gelatin,proteins
suspensions
solutes are very large; too heavy to remain suspened(eventually affected by gravity) : blood
decomposition
whan a large molecul is broken into smaller units (digestion)
synthesis
when small molecules are linked together forming large molecules (making proteins)
exchange reactions
AB = CD = AC + BD
molecules exchange atom pairs
gross anatomy
study of large body structures
surface_internal body structures as recognized from the overlying skin
regions-all structures in one area
systemic-11 organ systems
microscopic anatomy
cytology-study of cells
histology-study of tissues
developmental anatomy
changes in structure from conception to old age
pathologic anatomy
strutural changes caused by disease
molecular anatomy
study of structure and function of biological molecues
radiographic anatomy
study of internal structures by means of x-ray images
intumentary
structure & functionof skin
muscular
actions of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
neural
working of the nervous system
renal
urine productin and kidney functin
cardiovascular
operation of hte heart(circulatory) and respiratory system
Principle of complementarity of structure and funcion
function always reflects structure; what a structure can do depends on its specific form
structural organization
from simplest to most complex
Atom(chemical)-molecule-macromolecules-organelle-cell(simplest form of life)-tissue(group of cells working together=sponge)-organ(group of tissue working together=worm)-organ system(group of agans working together)-organism(sum of all organ systems working together)
Characteristics of Living Organisms
1.bounary maintenance
2. digestion
3. excretion
4. growth
5. metabolism
6. movement
7. reproduction
8. irritability
digestion
breaking large molecules into smaller units for absorbing as nutrients
excretion
removal of waste
growth
increasing in size(by cell number and size of cell)
metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions(both anabolic and catabolic)
movement
activities of the muscular system skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
reproduction
forming offspring; at cell and organismal level
irritability
ability to respond to changes in the environment
Requirements for life
1. pressure-exchanges of gases(O2, CO2)
2. stable temperature-needed for reactions to occur in a timely manner(cold=slow;too hot+stops reaction)
3. nutrients-needed for energy and growth
4. oxygen-needed to release energy from foods
5. water-major solvent, necessary for reactions, secretions, and excretions
control mechanisms
communication withinthe body is essential for homeostasis
3 crucial comoponents for homeostatic control
1. affector(sensory)-type of sensor that monitors and resonds to changes
2. integrator(decision maker) control cente-analyzes the input it receives and determines the resonse
3. effector motor(response)-carries out the responserelayed from the control center
Types of homeostatic control mechanisms
1-Positive Feedback(rare)birth process
2- Negative feedback(common) blood glucose
3 Imbalances-diseases; causes the organs to become less efficient which results in unstable internal environment.
diffusion-PARTICLES
a passive process by which a substance moves from one place to another due to the substances kinetic energy.
DIFFUSION
-MOLECULAR MOTION IS RANDOM AND ERRATIC
-MOLECULAR MOTION REFLECTS THE KINETIC ENERGY OF MOLECULES
-INCREASED TEMPERATURE INCREASES SPEED OF MOVEMENT
-DECREASED TEMPERATURE SLOWS MOVEMENT
-SMALLER THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT THE FASTER THE RATE OF DIFFUSION
osmosis-WATER
a passive process in which there is a net(greater)movement of water througha selectively permeable membran. Water moves by osmosis from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
isotomic
any solution in which cells maintain their normal shape and volume is called an isotonic solution. This is asolution in which the concentrations of solutes are the same on both sides. When RBC's are in an isotonic solution they maintain their normal shape and volume
hypotonic
a hypotonic solution is a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes(higher concentraionof water)than found inside the cell.When RBC's are placed in theis solution water molecules enter the cells by osmosis faster than they leave. Thjis situation causes the RBC's toswell and eventually to burst(hemolysis)
hypertonic
has a higher concentraion of solutes (lower concentration of water)than found inside the cell. When RBC's are placed in this solution water molecules move out of the cells by osmosis faster than they enter, causing the cells to shrink(crenation)