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38 Cards in this Set

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What is the endocrine system
The endocrine system secrets chemicals called hormones into the ECF then the hormones enter the blood stream to cirulate throughout the body looking for targets/receptors
Identify the 2 systems that regulate homeostasis
Endocrine and the Nervous System
Define hormone
Hormones are:
*specialized chemical messengers
*they are produced/secreted by organs/tissues
*circulate the body through the body fluids
*affect activity of target cells in specific ways
*the use specific receptors to activate their activities
how are hormones transported?
hormones are transported through the blood.
H2o soluble hormones are transported through the blood plasma in free form, while the lipid hormones attack themselves to proteins.
Identify the seven steroid hormones
1. cholesterol, aldosterone, cortisol, calcitrol, testosterone, progesterone, estrogen
identify how hormones are transprted int he blood (fat vs. h20 sol.)
Direct Gene Activation: Fat soluble hormones, receptors in cytoplasm or nucleus of cell, hormones attach to receptor, causes protein synthesis in ER, protein produced alters cellular activity by doing A-F

Second messenger: second messenger, hormones uses fixed receptors located in plasma membrane, once attached they activate series of enzymes:
1. adenylate cyclase (a.C)
2. A.Cyclase converts ATP to cAMP
3. cAMP activates PK protien kinase
4. PK causes A-F to occur
(to erase PK,phosphodiesterase deactivates cAMP)
Identify the affects a hormone has on a cell
*alters cellular activity
*incre/decre cell processes
*change permeability of PM
*synthesis of proteins, lipids, hormones
*alter metab. rxn's
*stimulate transport of substrate in/out of cell
*stimulate mitosis (reproduction of cells)
*stimulate contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle
Compare and contrast circulating vs. local hormones
-circulating hormones: they pass into the blood stream and act on distant targets
-local hormones: a.target is close to site of release (paracrine) b. target is the same cell that secretes them (autocrine)
What are the control of hormonal secretions?
major: negative feedback, positive feedback

Stimulation of control of the hormonal secretion:
1. hormonal- secretions from one endocrine organ to target another to secret other hormones GnRH w/ FSH LH
2. humoral- this is the use of monitory body fluids PTH, insulin/glucagon
3. neural- isolated cases, FFF epi/ne
what is the histology of the pituitary gland?
two parts: anterior/posterior
*anterior (adenohypophysis) produces hGH, TSH, ACTCH, FSH, LH, PRL
*posterior (neurohypophysis) ONLY STORES HORMONES, OT (oxytocin), ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
Histology of the thyroid glad?
*divided into two lobes, each on one side of the trachea
*two cell populations:
-follicular cells: secret T3 and T4 (located around "lak")
-parafollicular cells: secrete calcitonin (located as a cluster of cells)
Histology of parathyroid gland?
*secretes PTH
Histology of adrenal glad?
*paired glands located on the superior aspect of the kidneys
*cortex- mineralcorticoids:aldosterone
glugocorticoids: cortisol
gonadocorticoids: sex hormones
*medulla- synthesized by ANS produces EPI/NE (more EPI than NE)
Histology of Pancreas
*mixed gland/ both endo/exocrine
*exocrine: digestive enzymes
*endocrine: alpha- secrete glucagon beta- secrete insulin
***GLUCAGON*** incre blood glucose level, hyperglycemic agent
***INSULIN*** decre blood glucose leve, hypoglycemic
------DIABETES MELLITUS (NOT ENOUGH INSULIN, HYPOSECRETION OF INSULIN, THUS HYPERGLYCEMIC, IN NEED OF GLUCAGON)
What are the secen pancreatic ENZYMES?
-amylase*substrate: starch/amylose*end product: maltose
-trypsin*substrate: peptides*end product* peptides
-chymotrypsin*substrate:peptides*
endp product: peptides
-carboxypeptidase*substrate: dipeptides* end product: 2 amino acids
-Lipas*substrate: triglycerides* end product: 3 fatty acids/1 glycerol
-DNA'se*substrate: DNA* end product: nucleotides
RNa'se*substrateL RNA* end product: nucleotides

ALL OF THE ENZYMES FOR THE PANCREAS HAVE THE SAME TARGET SITE: DUODENUM

ALL OF THE ENZYMES FOR THE PANCREAS ARE PRODUCED BY THE ANCINI CELLS IN THE PANCREAS
LACTASE, MALTASE, SUCRASE ARE PRODUCED BY WHAT?
SMALL INSTESTINE (DUODENAL MUCOSA)
-TARGET SITE THE SAME: DUODENUM
-acronym: ENZYME: MLS (MALTASE, LACTASE, SUCRASE)
-acronym: SUBSTRATE: MLS (MALTOSE, LACTOSE, SUCROSE)
After maltase, lactase and sucrase reach the target site (duodenum), it binds with the substrates, maltose, lactose, and sucrose to produce what three end products?
(in order of the enzymes)
-2 glucose
-glucose/galactose
-glucose/fructose
the enzyme that is produced by the stomach is?
pepsin
What is the target of pepsin, what is the substrate, and the end product as well?
target? stomach
substrate? proteins
end product? peptides
what are the the three enzymes that produce peptides as their end products?
pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin
what two enzymes produce nucleotides?
DNA'se and RNA'se
what enzyme produces maltose?
amylase
What enyzmes produces 2 amino acids?
carboxypeptides
what enzyme produces 3 fatty acids/ 1 glycerol?
lipase
what are the substrates for caboxypeptides and lipase?
dipeptides/triglycerides
which enzyme does not have the target site for the duodenum?
pepsin
THis hormone stimulates production of gastric juices....
gastrin
what is the target site for gastrin?
stomach
this hormone stimulates production of bile, rich carbonic fluid, and inhibits stomach contractions
secretin
what is the target site for secretin?
liver/stomach/pancreatic duct
this hormone stimulates production of enzymes, release of bile
CCK
what is the target site of CCK?
pancreaz/gallbladder/sphincter of ODDI
what two hormones are produced by the duodenal mucosa?
secretin/cck
what hormone is produced by the "G" cells in the stomach?
gastrin
what enzyme and hormone are produced by the stomach mucosa
pepsin/gastrin
what is pepsin's action?
it breaks down proteins
what is gastrin's action?
gastrin is a hormone that relaxes the pyloric sphincter and closes the cardiac sphincter
what are the three enzymes of the small intestine?
maltase, sucrase, lactase?