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210 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The field of chemistry that primarily deals with the element carbon
Organic Chemistry
The field of chemistry that deals with carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids
Biochemistry
Approximately how many different elements are there?
~100
Do any two elements have the same symbol?
No
The atomic weight rounded to the nearest whole number is termed what?
The Mass Number
What is the symbol for sodium?
Na
Which subatomic units are found in the theoretical model nucleus?
Protons and Neutrons
Are all atoms neutral?
Yes
What is the maximum number of electrons in energy level (shell) two?
8
The number of protons is derived from what?
Number of Electrons (which always equals the atomic number)
The number of electrons in the theoretical model of an atom always equals the number of what?
Protons
What term is used to describe an atom called that has gained or lost electrons?
Ion
The symbol for the sodium ion is what?
Na+
What is the symbol for the chlorine ion?
Cl-
What are the two ways a phosphate ion can be written?
(PO4)-3 PO4 ---
What two ways can the symbol for the sulfate ion be written?
SO4= (SO4)-2
What prefix indicated large size?
Macro
Are all molecules produced by the cell macro-molecular?
No
The cell membrane has a double _________ __________
Layer
Lipid (phospolipid) Protein Layer
In general, the cell membrane has established a permeable level so that molecules that have a molecular weight beyond what do not enter the cell?
3,000 M.W.
What is the formula for glucose?
C6 H12 O6
What is the molecular weight of glucose?
180 M.W.
Figured by multiplying each element subscript by its mass # such as:
C
6 X 12 = 72
H
12 X 1 = 12
O
6 X 16 = 96
____________
M.W. 180
Numbers are on Periodic Table
Do all hexose monosaccarides have the same molecular weight?
Yes. Hexose means 6 carbons. So if the general formula for a monosaccaride is
Cn H2n On
and Carbon has six the other two have to follow the formula making the same M.W. of 180
Are there molecules that have a molecular weight greater than 25,000
Yes
Would insulin be characterized as macromolecular?
Yes
Indentations (invaginations) in the cell membrane where ribosomes are located is termed what?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Where are proteins synthesized (cell organelle)?
Ribosomes
Energy is produced in the cell in which cell organelle?
Mitochondria
Which monosaccharide is utilized to ultimately recharge ADP---->ATP?
Glucose
What is the collective term for all intracellular reactions?
Metabolism
Do most human cell function occur at a pH just slightly beyond 7.0?
Yes
On the pH scale what is any solution between 0 and 7 termed?
An Acid
Is vinegar a stronger acid than H SO ?
2 4
No vinegar is not strong than battery acid.
Does a cerebral stroke result in the loss of selected brain cells due to drastic change in celluar pH?
Yes
How many numbers of elements does the element carbon always share?
4
What is the simplest hydocarbon and what is its chemical formula?
Methane

CH4
What is the formula for ehtyl alcohol?
C2 H5 OH
What is an Isotope?
Form of an element whose atoms contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons and thus differ in atomic weight.
True or False:
Carbohydrates are sugars
TRUE
True or False:
All carbohydrates contain
C, H, O
TRUE
What is the simplest type of carbohydrate?
monosaccaride
What is the general formula for a monosaccaride?
Cn H2n On
What are two examples of pentoses?
Ribose and Deoxyribose
What is the specific formula for a hexose monosaccharide?
C6 H12 O6
Is glucose a hexose monosaccharide carbohydrate?
Yes
Is fructose and aldose monosaccaride?
No, it is a ketose because the position of the carbon double bond to oxygen is not attached to and end (or terminal) carbon.
True or False:
Glucose will taste sweet to humans
False
What is the general formula for a disaccaride?
Cn H2n-2 On-1
In the plant cell, what organelle is where photosynthesis occurs?
Chloroplast
What is the polysaccharide stored by plants called?
Starch
What is the general formula for a polysaccharide?
(C6 H10 O5)n
Do all plants produce the same type of polysaccharide?
No
K
Potassium
Mg
Magnesium
Ca
Calcium
Mn
Manganese
Fe
Iron
Co
Cobalt
Ni
Nickel
Cu
Copper
Ag
Silver
Au
Gold
Zn
Zinc
Hg
Mercury
Al
Aluminium
C
Carbon
N
Nitrogen
P
Phosphorous
O
Oxygen
S
Sulphur
Cl
Chlorine
I
Iodine
He
Helium
Ne
Neon
U
Uranium
As
Arsenic
Pb
Lead
H
Hydrogen
NH4+
Ammonium Ion
OH-
Hydroxyl Ion
H+
Hydrogen Ion
Ca++
Calcium Ion
K+
Potasium Ion
HCO3-
Bicarbonate Ion
What is protoplasm
Collectively, all fluid and its contents inside the cell membrane or inside any cell organelle
What is cytoplasm
Fluid material in the cell
What is nucleoplasm
Fluid material occuring inside the nuclear membrane
What are cell organelles?
Cell parts
What is a compound?
Groups of elements sharing electrons and exhibiting a neutral charge
What is Molecular weight?
The sum of all atomic weights of elements that comprise a compound
What is an isotope?
atoms of the same atomic number, but different atomic weights due to unequal numbers of neutrons
What is an Ion?
atoms that have gained or lost electrons
What is pH?
Indication of the concentration of H+ in a solution expressed in grams of ions/liter.
Scale: 1-7 acid
7 is netral
7-14 base
What is the normal pH of human blood?
7.4
What term describes what happens if blood pH drops below normal levels?
acidosis
What term describes what happens if blood pH rises above normal levels?
Alkalosis
What is a Hydrocarbon?
Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
What are alcohols?
Derivatives of hydrocarbons in which a hydrogen is replaced by an OH (hydroxyl) group
What is an Aromatic Hydrocarbon?
Compounds whose structure can be represented in a ring formation
What are aliphatic compounds?
Organic compounds in which the carbon atoms are joined in a straight or branched chain
What is the simplest ring (aromatic) hydrocarbon?
Benzene-which is also the parent substance of all aromatic compounds
What is the simplest aliphatic compound?
Methane (CH4)
What makes a monosaccharide a ketose?
Carbon double bond occurs within the chain
an example of a ketose is fructose
What makes a monosaccharide an aldose?
The double bond is attached to an end (terminal) carbon
How much protein does a fit adult body contain?
12-18%
How are enzymes named?
Generally end in the suffix
-ase
When is a protein considered complex?
When the protein has a cofactor such as a mineral, vitamin, or vitamin derivative
What functions can protein serve?
Structural, Regulatory, Contractile, Immunological, Transport, and Catalytic
What is a peptide bond?
amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another amino acis join with the subsequent dehydration of a molecule of H20
Do plants synthesize all of their amino acids?
Yes
What is the structure of an amino acid?
All amino acids contain a minimum of one amino and one carboxyl group attached to a central carbon.
What is the simplest amino acid?
Glycine
How many essential amino acids are there for humans?
10
How many amino acids are there?
20
Where does glycolysis occur?
Cytoplasm of the cell
What are the three types of polysacharides?
Glycogen, Starch, and Cellulose
How is a maltose sugar made?
1 glucose + 1 glucose
How is a sucrose sugar made?
1 glucose + 1 fructose
How is a lactose sugar made?
1 glucose + 1 galactose
Which vitamins are fat soluble?
A,D,E,K
How many kilocalories per gram is fat?
9 k/g
What are unsaturated fatty acids?
One or more double bond of carbon causing less amounts of hydrogen to attach. These are usually liquid at room temperature.
What are saturated fatty acids?
No carbon double bonds in chain leading to the most amount of hydrogen attached. These tend to be solid at room temperature.
What is the chemical compostion of a lipid?
1 glyceral+ 3 fatty acids
(triglyceride)
What are the elements that make up a lipid?
C, H, O
What elements are proteins composed of?
C, H, O, N (and a few contain S)
What types of lipids are there?
Triglycerides, Phosphlipids, Steriods, Lipoproteins, Eicosanoids, and Waxes
What is involved in the catabolism of lipids?
breakdown of lipids for energy involves the hydrolysis (+H20) of triglycerides into two carbon units.
What is involved in the anabolism of lipids?
Sythesis of lipids (lipogenesis) results in the formation of lipids by the subtraction of H2O
Who created the term for vitamins?
Funk in 1912 because unknown factors were vital
What is the role of vitamins?
To serve as cofactors or components of cofactors in a complex enzyme
What role do minerals have?
Co-factors in complex enzymes or in some other orgainc union (such as iron of the hemoglobin ot iodine in thyroxine)
What is transcription and where does it occur?
Occurs in the nucleus; the copying of genetic information from DNA to mRNA
What is translation and where does it occur?
Occurs in the cytoplasm; ribosome binds to mRNA and tRNA provides anticodons to release specific amino acids for the creation of proteins.
What is the START codon?
AUG
What are the three STOP codons?
UAA, UAG, UGA
How many codons are there?
64
How many actually code for amino acids?
61
Where does the TCA (or Krebs) Cycle occur?
Mitochondria
Do mitochondria have there own DNA?
Yes
From which parent do we inherit our mitochondrial DNA?
From the mother because the Mitochondria on the sperm is in the tail which is not included when conception occurs.
How much ATP is gained from Gylcolysis in one glucose?
2 ATP
How much ATP is gained from Cellular Respiration in total in one glucose?
38 ATP TOTAL:
2 ATP Gylcolysis
2 ATP Krebs
34 ATP Electron Transport
What are the stages of mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What occurs during Prophase?
Centrioles divide and move to oppisite poles. Individual chromosomes appear thicker and shorter.
What occurs during metaphse?
Phase is marked by the arrangement of chromosomes along center of cell. Nuclear membran and nucleolus have become disrupted. Centrioles have migrated to poles. Spindle fibers between centrioles and chromosomes
What occurs during anaphase?
The centromeres of each chromosome (chromatids) divide. Chromatids can now be considered separate chromosomes. Rapid migration toward each cetnriole begins.
What occurs during telephase?
Stage is marked by the unfolding of cytoplasm between the two daughter nuclei and a gradual pinching apart of the daughter cells. Nuclear membranes appear and enclose daughter nuclei. Chromosomes uncoil and appear as a chromatin network
Do the mitochondria divide evenly during mitosis?
No, the amount of mitochondria given to each daughter cell happens by chance. Mitochondria can reproduce independant of this to replace to the proper amount for each cell.
What is meiosis of the human female called?
oogenesis
What is meiosis of the human male called?
Spermatogenesis
What portal system connects the small intestine and the liver?
Hepatic Portal circulatory system
True or False:
The concentration of a substance is the same in general and portal circulation?
False
Which hormon converts glucose to glycogen?
Insulin
Which hormon converts glycogen to glucose?
Glucogon
Which hormone sends glucose into the cell?
Insulin
What is the animal polysaccharide called?
Glycogen
Where is glucagon produced?
Pancreas
What are the specialized cells of the pancreas that produce Insulin and Glucagon called?
Islets of Langerhans
Where in the cell are lipids synthesized?
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Where does the end product of fat digestion drain into?
The thoracic duct (part of the lymphatic system)
How many pairs of chromosomes does all human nucleated cells contain?
23 pairs
What is the designation for the female sex chromosome?
X
What is the designation for the male sex chromosome?
Y
What is the paired chromosome condition termed?
Diploid
True or False:
A cell is not metabolically active during mitosis?
True
What is the process whereby a diploid cell is reduced to haploid status termed?
Meiosis
How many genes does every nucleated human cell contain?
~100,000
Which hormon aids in the movement of oxygen into the cell?
Thyroxine
What protein, located on the surface of the red blood cell picks up oxygen at the level of the lung?
Hemoglobin
What is another name for Gycolysis?
Embden-Meyerhoff reaction
What are other names for the TCA cycle?
Krebs cycle or the Citric Acid Cycle
Are all enzymes in the TCA cycle produced via mitochondrial DNA?
Yes
What is the final hydrogen acceptor in electron transport?
Oxygen
Where is hemoglobin synthesized?
Bone Marrow
What is attached to the protein portion of hemoglobin and acts as a co-factor?
Iron
Where does the carbon dioxide you exhale originate?
Cellular respiration
What nucleic acid does Adenine pair with in the DNA molecule?
Thyamine
What are the four DNA nucleatides?
Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytocine
How are each nucleotide joined to its partner?
Hydrogen Bond
What are the differences between DNA and RNA?
DNA is double stranded, contains the pentose deoxyribose, and contains the nucleotide thyamine. It is too large to leave the nucleus. RNA is usually single stranded, contains the pentose ribose, and contains the nucleotide uricil instead of thyamine.
What is the space on the chromosome where the gene is located termed?
Locus (plural: loci)
Is the life-span of tRNA the same as that of the cell
Yes
Which enzyme aids in the building of the m_RNA molecule?
RNA polymerase
How many amino acids are there in insulin?
51
Stratified Squamous
What kind of Epithelial Cell is this?
(Distended) Transitional Stratifed Epithelium
What type of ephithelial cells is this?
(Contracted) Transitional Stratified Epithelium
What type of epithelial cells is this?
Grandular Epithelium (Exocrine)
What type of Ephithelial cells is this?
Glandular Epithelium (Endocrine)
What type of Ephithelial cells is this?
Pseudostratified Columnar
Simple Epithelium
What type of Ephithelial cells is this?
Columnar Simple Epithelium
What type of Ephithelial cells is this?
Cuboidal Simple Epithelium
What type of Ephithelial cells is this?
Squamous Simple Epithelium
What type of Ephithelial cells is this?
What are the three cell shapes?
Squamous, Cuboidal, and Columnar
If only one layer of cells covers the basal lamina how is that epithelial tissue described?
Simple Epithelium
What characteristic regions of the body are simple epithelium found?
Line internal compartments and passageways, including the ventral body cavities, the heart chamber, and blood vessels and are also characterstic of regions in which secretion or absorption occur such as the lining of the intestines and the gas-exchange surface of the lungs.
If several layers of cells cover the basal lamina how is that epithelial tissue decribed?
Stratified Epithelium
What areas of the body do stratified epithelium serve?
Generally located in areas that need protection from mechanical or chemical stresses, such as the surface of the skin and the lining of the mouth.
Where would simple squamous epithelium be found?
regions where absorption or diffusion takes place or where a slick, slippery surface reduces friction
Where would stratified squamous epithelium be found?
Generally located where mechanical stresses are severe. The surface of the skin and the lining of the mouth, esophagus and anus for example
Where would simple cubodial epithelium be found?
Provides limited protection and occurs where secretion or absorption takes place. Such an epithelium lines portions of the kidney tubules
Where would stratifeid cubodial epithelium be found?
These are relatively rare; they are located along the duct of sweat glands and in the larger ducts of the mammary glands.
Where would transitional epithelium be found?
Regions of the urinary system such as the urinary bladder.
Where would simple columnar epithelium be found?
Typically found where absorption or secretion occurs, such as the small intestine.
Where would pseudostratified columnar epithelium be found?
Line most of the nasl cavity, the trachea, the bronchi and portions of the male reproductive tract
Where would stratified columnar epithelium be found?
Relatively rare, providing protection along portions of the pharynx, epiglottis, anus and urethra as well as along a few large execretory ducts.
What are Glandualar Ephithelia?
Collections of epithelial cells (or structured derived from epithelial cells) that produce secretions are called glands.
What are endocrine glands?
Glands that release their secretions into the interstitial fluids. These secretions are called hormones. Endocrine galnds are called ductless glands.
What are exocrine glands?
Glands that release their secretions into passeageways called ducts that open onto an epithelial surface. (such as tears in the eye)