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63 Cards in this Set

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Define Anatomy
The study of the structure and location of body parts
Define Physiology
The study of the function of bodily parts
Define Pathophysiology
The study of the chain of events that result from from a disease or illness
Developmental anatomy
focuses on how an individual forms from a fertilized egg all the way through adulthood; look at how certain body parts or systems change
Gross Anatomy
the study of large parts of the body that can be seen with the naked eye.
Histologic anatomy
the study of different tissue types and the cells that comprise them; histo-tissue (histos = web or loom)
Can systems and individual structures of the body have more than one function?
yes
List the levels of the body from smallest to largest
1. Atoms
2. Cells
3. Tissues
4. Organs
5. Organ systems
6. Organism
What is an Atom?
the smallest possible piece of an elemetn that retains all the properties of the element
What is a molecule?
A product of two or more atoms
What is an enzyme?
proteins that speed a chemical reaction
What general functions do cells have? "The fundamental units of life"
1. converting energy
2. digesting food
3. excreting waste
4. Reproducing
5. Taking in oxygen
What is a tissue?
a grouping a cells that perform the same function
What are the 4 classes of Tissue?
1. Connective: found in blood and bones, serves to support body parts and bind them together
2. Epithelial: type of tissue that lines organs and covers the body
3. Muscle: found in the muscles, which allow your body parts to move via the act of contraction and relaxation
4. Nerve: transmits impulses adn forms nerves
What is an organ?
Two or more tissues working together to perform a specialized physiological function
What is an Organ system?
a group of specialized organs working together to achieve a major physiological need ex)digestive system
Latin root: Aden-
gland
Latin root: Angi-
vessle
Latin root: Arthr-
Joint
Latin root: Bronch-
Windpipe
Latin root: Carcin-
Cancer
Latin root: Cardi-
heart
Latin root: Carp-
Wrist
Latin root: Chol-
Bile, gall
Latin root: Derm-
Skin
Latin root: Erythro-
Red
Latin root: Gastr-
Stomach
Latin root: Hemat-
Blood
Latin root: Histo-
Tissue
Latin root: Path-
Disease
Latin root: Sept-
Contamination
What is anatomic position?
Upright, faceforward, palms facing forward
Define Anterior
Front or toward the front of the body
Define Posterior
Back or toward the back of the body
Define Dorsal
Back or toward the back of the body
Define Ventral
Front or toward the front of the body
Define Caudal
Near or toward the tail
Define Prone
Lying on the stomach, face down
Define Supine
Lying on the back, face up
Define Lateral
On the side or toward the side of the body
Define Medial or median
In the middle or toward the middle of the body
Define Proximal
Nearer to the point of attachment or the trunk of the body
Define Distal
Farther from the point of attachment or the trunch of the body (distance)
Define Superficial
Near the surface of the body
Define Deep (in relation to body location)
Farther from the surface of the body
Define Superior (position)
Situated above or higher than another part
Define Inferior (position)
Situated below or lower than another part
Define Central
Near the center of the body or middle of an organ
Define Peripheral
Away from the center of the body
What are the three anatomic planes?
1. Frontal Plane: divides the body inot a front (anterior) portion adn a rear (posterior) portion
2. Sagittal Plane: vertical divides the body lenthwise into right and left sections
Midsagittal: down middle
Longitudinal: any point
3. Transverse plane: divides body horizontally into top (superior) and bottom (inferior) portions (can go anywhere: cross sections)
What are the two major portions of the body?
1. Axial
2. Appendicular: limbs
List the regions of the Axial portion of the body
HEAD AND NECK
1. Cephalic (head)
2. Cervical (neck)
3. Cranial (skull)
4. Frontal (forehead)
5. Occipital (back of head)
6. Ophthalmic (orbital, eyes)
7. Oral (mouth)
8. Nasal (nose)
THORAX
1. Axillary (armpit)
2. Costal (ribs)
3. Mammary (breast)
4. Pectoral (chest)
5. Vertebral (backbone)
ABDOMEN
1. Celiac (abdomen)
2. Gluteal (buttocks)
3. Groin (area of abdomen near thigh)
4. Inguinal (groin)
5. Lumbar (lower back)
6. Pelvic (lower part of abdomen)
7. Perineal (area between anus and external genitalia)
8. Sacral (end of vertebral column)
List the regions of the Appendicular portion of the body
ARMS
1. brachial (upper arm)
2. carpal (wrist)
3. cubital (elbow)
4. forearm (lower arm)
5. palmer (palm)
LEGS
1. femoral (thigh)
2. lower leg (below the knee)
3. pedal (foot)
4. popliteal (back of knee)
Body cavities are holes where organs are held. What are the two main body cavities and what cavities do they house?
1. Dorsal Cavity
a. Cranial cavity: brain
b. spinal cavity: spinal cord
2. Ventral Cavity (divided by the diaphram)
a. thoracic cavity: heart and lungs
b. abdomino-pelvic: stomach, liver, gall-bladder, spleen, most intestines; reproductive organs, bladder, rectum and lower portion of the intestines
The abdomen is divided into quadrants and regions. Name these
QUADRANTS
1. Right Upper
2. Left Upper
3. Left Lower
4. Right Lower
REGIONS
1. Epigastric: above the stomach and in the central part of the abdomen just above the naval
2. Hypochondriac: lies to the right and left of the epigastric region and just below the cartilage of the rib cage
3. Hypogastric: Below the stomach and in the central part of the abdomen just below the navel
4. Iliac: lies to the right and left fo the hypogastric regions near the hip bones
5. Umbilical: the area aroudn the navel
6. Lumbar: Froms the region of the lower back to the right and left fo the umbilical region
What is a pathogen
an agent that causes disease
Metabolism:
(2 types of reactions that occur?)
describes all the chemical reactions that occur in the body

Anabolic: create needed products

Catabolic: break down products
What is the form of energy used by cells?
ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)
What processes are involved in cellular respiration which converts energy from fuel into ATP?
1. Glycolosis
2. Aerobic (Kreb's cycle) & Anaerobic respiration
3. Oxidative Phosphorylation
How is the nervous system divided?
CNS: Central Nervous System; includes the brain a spinal cord

PNS: Peripheral nervous system; consists of the nerves that project out from the brain and spinal cord
What is the definition of a nerve? and what two types of nerve fibers are there?
a nerve is a vessel that contains nerve fibers and connects them to the CNS

Motor: send impulses away from the CNS

Sensory: Send impuses toward the CNS
What does the PNS consist of in terms of nerves and fibers?
Cranial Nerves: stem from the brain

Spinal Nerves: stem from the spinal cord

Sensory fibers: are all over the body and send impulses to the CNS via the cranial and spinal nerves

Motor fibers: Which connect to muscles and glands and send impulses from the CNS via the cranial and spinal nerves.
The PNS is divided into two systems. What are these and how does each function?
The Somatic System: consists of motor fibers sending impulses FROM the CNS to the voluntary skeletal muscles, as well as sensory fibers receiving input from receptors in the skin and initiating impulses as a reaction to the input

The Autonomic system: consists of motor fibers sending impulses FROM the CNS to the glands, the heart and involuntary smooth muscle (as in organs) and is made up of:
The Sympathetic nervous system: Nerves originate in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord

The parasympathetic nervous system: nerves originate in the brain and sacrum

~They both control internal organ functions that are involuntary and that happen subconsciously, such as breathing, heartbeat, and digestion