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126 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anatomy
deals with the structure of body parts
Physiology
deals with the functions of the body parts
Levels of Organization
1. atoms 2. molecules 3. macromolecules 4. cell 5. organelles 6. tissue 7. organs 8. organ systems 9. organism
metabolism
all of the chemical reactions in cells that break down or build substances
characteristics of life
1. movement 2. responsiveness 3. growth 4. reproduction 5. respriration 6. digestion 7. absorption 8. circulation 9. assimilation 10. excretion
movement
change in position of the body or of a body part; motion of an internal organ
responsiveness
reaction to a change inside or outside the body
growth
increase in body size without change in shape
reproduction
production of new organisms and new cells
respiration
obtaining oxygen, removing carbon dioxide, and releasing energy from foods(some forms of life do not use oxygen in respiration)
digestion
breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used
absorption
passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids
circulation
movement of substances in body fluids
assimilation
changing absorbed substances into chemically different forms
excretion
removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions
requirements of organisms
1. water 2. foods 3. oxygen 4. heat 5. pressure
water
the most abundent chemical in the body. it is required for many metabolic processes and provides the environment in which most of them take place. water also transports substances within the organism and is important in regulating body temperature
food
substances that provide the body with necessary chemicals (nutrients) in addition to water. some of these chemicals are used as energy sources, others supply raw materials for building new living matter, and still others help regulate vital chemical reactions
oxygen
a gas that makes up about one-fifth of ordinary air. it is used to release energy from food substances. this energy, in turn, drive metabolic processes
heat
a from of energy. it is a prdouct of metabolic reactions, ad the degree of heat present partly determines the rate at which these reactions occur. the more hear, the more rapidly chemical reactions take place
pressure
application of force to something.
atmospheric pressure
this pressure is important in breathing
hydrostatic pressure
a pressure that a liquid exerts- due to the weight of water above them
internal environment
conditions within the fluid in the surrounding the body cells
homeostasis
the condition of a stable internal environment
homeostatic mechanisms
self-regulating control systems
receptors
provide information about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment
set point
tells what particular value should be (such as body temperature)
effectors
cause responces that alter conditions in the internal environment
negative feedback
a mechanism actvated by an imbalance that corrects the imbalance
appendicular
portion which includes the upper and lower limbs
cranial cavity
houses the skull
vertebral canal
contains the spinal cord within the sections of the backbone
thoracic cavity
chest cavity
abdominopelvic cavity
the space between the diaphram and the lower portion of the trunk of the body
viscera
the organs within the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
diaphragm
the broad thin muscle that seperates the lower abdominopelvic cavity and the thoracic cavity
mediastinum
separates the thoracic cavity into two compartments, which contain the right and left lungs. the remaining thoracic viscera- heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland- are located here
abdominal cavity
the viscera include the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and most of the small and large intestines
pelvic cavity
the portion of the abdominopelvic cavity enclosed by the hip bones. it contains the terminal portion of the large intestine, the urinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs.
oral cavity
contain the teeth and tongue
nasal cavity
located within the nose and divided into right and left portions by a nasal septum
sinuses
connect to the nasal cavity, contain the frontal and sphenoidal sinuses
orbital cavities
containing the eyes and associated skeletal muscles and nerves
middle ear cavities
contain the middle ear bones
parietal membrane
refers to the membrane attached to the wall of a cavity
vesceral membrane
refers to the membrane that is deeper- toward the interior- and covers and internal organ, such as a lung
pleural membranes
serous membranes that enclose the lungs and line and chest wall. they are separated by a thin flim of watery fluid, while they secrete
pericardial membranes
surround the heart.
visceral pericardium
covers the hearts surface
perietal pericardium
a thicker membrane that is seperated from the vesceral pericardium by a small volume of fluid
visceral peritoneum
covers each organ in the addominal cavity
peritoneal cavity
potential space between the membranes
integumentary system
include the skin and various accessory organs such as, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands
skeletal system
consists of bones, ligaments, ad cartilages. they provide the frameworks and protective shields for softer tissues
muscular system
provide forces that move body parts by contracting and pulling their ends closer together
nervous system
consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sence organs
nerve impulses
electrochemial signals
endocrine system
includes all the glands that secrete hormones
hormones
chemial messengers
cardiovascular system
includes the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood
lymphatic system
composed of lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen. this transports some of the tissue fluid back into the blood and carry fatty acids away from the digestive organs
digestive system
receive foods from the outside and break them down into simpler forms that can pass through cell membranes and be absorbed
urinary system
consists of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
reproductive system
produces new organisms
anatomical position
the body is standing erect, face forward, with the upper limbs at the sides and palms forward
superior
a body part is above another part or closer to the head
inferior
a body part is below another body part or is toward the feet
anterior
towards the front
posterior
toward the back
medial
divides the body into equal right and left halves
lateral
toward the side with respect the the imaginary midline
proximal
a body part that is closer to a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part
distal
the body part is further away from the point of attachment to the trunk than another body part
superficial
near the surface
deep
more internal
sagital plane
divides the body into left and right portions
transverse plane
divides the body betiween top and bottom
coronal plane
divides the front and back
epigastric region
refers to the upper middle portion
Left and right hypochondriac regions
lie on each side of the epigsatric region
umbilical region
middle portion
left and right lumbar regions
lie on each side of the umbilical region
hypogastric region
lower middle portion
left and right iliac regions
lie on each side of the hypogastric region
cephalic
head
frontal
forehead
orbital
eye cavity
buccal
cheek
mental
chin
otic
ear
nasal
nose
oral
mouth
cervical
neck
acromial
point of shoulder
sternal
sternum
axillary
armpit
pectoral
chest
mammary
breast
brachial
arm
antecubital
front of elbow
umbillical
navel
abdominal
forearm
carpal
wrist
palmer
palm
inguinal
groin
coxal
hip
digital
finger
genital
reproductive organs
patellar
front of knee
crural
leg
tarsal
ankle
pedal
foot
occipital
back of head
vertebral
spinal column
brachial
arm
dorsum
cubital
lumbar
lower back
sacral
between hips
gluteal
buttocks
perineal
area between anus and reproductive organs
femoral
thigh
popliteal
back of knee
crural
leg
plantar
sole
abdominal area
broken up into right and left upper and lower quadrants