Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/120

Click to flip

120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Endoplasmic reticulum
a system of tubes running throughout the cell and continuous with the nuclear membrane
nucleus structure
-nuclear envelope made up of 2 phospholipid bilayers
-the outer layer merges into the ER
-has nuclear pores that allow proteins and RNA to pass
cystic fibrosis
hereditary disorder characterized by lung congestion and infection due to a defective chloride (Cl-)channel that leads to unusually thick mucus secretions
why would nitroglycerin be prescribed for heart pain?
it releases NO which dilates (opens up) the coronary arteries (which supply the heart itself with blood)
Nitric Oxide does this:
it relaxes the smooth muscle in arteries thereby increasing their diameter

this increases blood flow
buffers are:
compounds that help keep the pH relatively constant by adding or removing H+ as necessary
exocrine glands def. and ex.
have ducts (tubes) through which their secretions travel to the apical

ex: Lacrimal glands, sweat, mammary
mitosis:
-original nucleus divides to produce another genetically identical to itself
-asexual division
-chromosomes visible
tight junctions:
-a long stretch of interlocking proteins tightly connects the two cell membranes
-such that adjacent lipids are fused
-blocks the passage of substances between cells
-common between superficial intestinal cells
gap junctions are common between:
ciliated EPI cells
stratified cuboidal function
secretion and some protection
stratified cuboidal location
sweat and salivary gland ducts
gap junctions:
-cells are held together by interlocking proteins called connexons
-the connexon has a hollow space through its center
-this allows small molecules and ions to pass directly from cell to cell
stratified columnar function
secretion and protection
stratified columnar location
RARE
larynx, mammary gland ducts, parts of male urethra
endocrine glands def. and ex.
-ductless (lose them early in development)
-hormones diffuse outward into ECF
-ex: pituitary, thyroid, ovary
ion
-a charged atom
-unusual number of electrons
As the blood becomes too basic, the reaction proceeds to the _ and _:
-left
-acid dissociates to add more H+
As the blood becomes too acidic, the reaction proceeds to the _ and _:
-right
-excess H+ is mopped up and taken out of solution
xray def:
high energy radiation passes through soft tissues not hard
three major divisions of the cell:
1)cell membrane (plasma)
2)Nucleus
3)cytoplasm with organelles
where is cholesterol spread?
among the phospholipids
In simple diffusion, gases (O2, CO2, NO), small alcohols and lipid soluble (hydrophobic substances:
can simply diffuse across the phospholipid bilayer
simple diffusion:
the movement of a substance from an area where it is highly concentrated to an area of lower concentration
cillia
relatively long extensions of the cell membrane that beat in a rhythmic fashion
microvilli are the _ that _ and are abundant on cells lining the _.
1) densely packed, short, non-movable extensions
2)that greatly increase the surface area of the cell
3)they're abundant on cells lining the small intestine
simple diffusion is caused by _:
random molecular motion
channels function:
allow hydrophilic substances to cross the cell membrane
membrane proteins location and functions:
-these "float" in the bilayer
1)channels
2)receptors
3)enzymes
4)anchors
5)cell identification
In general, the more cholesterol in the membrane the more _the membrane becomes.
rigid
urine with a pH of 6 has _ times _ H+ than vinegar with a pH of 5.
-10
-less (fewer)
coffee with a pH of 5 has _ times _ H+ than water with a pH of 7.
-100
-more
If soda(pH=4)has 1000 times fewer H+ than stomach fluid. What is the pH of stomach fluid?
1
urine with a pH of 6 has _ times
_ H+ than water with a pH of 7.
-10
-more
Each pH unit represents a _ difference in the concentration of H+.
10 fold
Depending on _ the protein will assume a specific _.
-which amino acids its made of
-3d shape
If calcitonin is controlled by negative feedback, what effect would it have on blood calcium levels?
Calcitonin is released when calcium levels are elevated. This hormone should bring about a decrease in blood calcium levels, thus decreasing the stimulus for its own release.
Transitional epithelium location and function
-bladder. ureters, urethra
-allows structures to stretch as they are filled with urine
When a cell is placed in a _ solution, the cell will lose water through osmosis. This process results in the _ of red blood cells.
-hypertonic
-crenation
Explain how enzymes work in chemical reactions.
Enzymes are special protein catalysts that lower the activation energy for chemical reactions. Enzymes speed up chemical reaction, but are not used up or changed in the process.
The type of cartilage growth characterized by adding new layers of cartilage to the surface is _.
oppositional growth
homeostasis definition:
the ability of the body to maintain relatively constant internal conditions (blood pressure, water balance, body temp.)
ultrasound
1)definition
2)advantage
3)disadvantage
4)used for _
1)high frequency sound waves echo back from internal organs
2)avoids dangers of radiation
3)but image isn't very clear
4)fetus, look at heart, speed up healing of a fracture
CT scan definition and uses:
-computerized/computed tomography
-computer pieces together several x-rays to produce image (slice) of the body
-can also stack the slices to form a 3d image
-clearer than an x-ray
The type of cartilage growth characterized by adding new layers of cartilage to the surface is _.
oppositional growth
The type of cartilage growth characterized by adding new layers of cartilage to the surface is _.
oppositional growth
The type of cartilage growth characterized by adding new layers of cartilage to the surface is _.
oppositional growth
The type of cartilage growth characterized by adding new layers of cartilage to the surface is _.
oppositional growth
homeostasis definition:
the ability of the body to maintain relatively constant internal conditions (blood pressure, water balance, body temp.)
homeostasis definition:
the ability of the body to maintain relatively constant internal conditions (blood pressure, water balance, body temp.)
PET scan def and use
-used to tell which tissues are metabolically the most active
-reveals lymph node tumors
ultrasound
1)definition
2)advantage
3)disadvantage
4)used for _
1)high frequency sound waves echo back from internal organs
2)avoids dangers of radiation
3)but image isn't very clear
4)fetus, look at heart, speed up healing of a fracture
lysosomes:
small sacs of digestive enzymes that destroy pathogens and recycle worn out or inactive parts of the cell
ultrasound
1)definition
2)advantage
3)disadvantage
4)used for _
1)high frequency sound waves echo back from internal organs
2)avoids dangers of radiation
3)but image isn't very clear
4)fetus, look at heart, speed up healing of a fracture
homeostasis definition:
the ability of the body to maintain relatively constant internal conditions (blood pressure, water balance, body temp.)
homeostasis definition:
the ability of the body to maintain relatively constant internal conditions (blood pressure, water balance, body temp.)
simple diffusion happens _ and the cell _
-automatically, freely
-the cell doesn't have to pay for it
(ATP)
CT scan definition and uses:
-computerized/computed tomography
-computer pieces together several x-rays to produce image (slice) of the body
-can also stack the slices to form a 3d image
-clearer than an x-ray
CT scan definition and uses:
-computerized/computed tomography
-computer pieces together several x-rays to produce image (slice) of the body
-can also stack the slices to form a 3d image
-clearer than an x-ray
ultrasound
1)definition
2)advantage
3)disadvantage
4)used for _
1)high frequency sound waves echo back from internal organs
2)avoids dangers of radiation
3)but image isn't very clear
4)fetus, look at heart, speed up healing of a fracture
ultrasound
1)definition
2)advantage
3)disadvantage
4)used for _
1)high frequency sound waves echo back from internal organs
2)avoids dangers of radiation
3)but image isn't very clear
4)fetus, look at heart, speed up healing of a fracture
CT scan definition and uses:
-computerized/computed tomography
-computer pieces together several x-rays to produce image (slice) of the body
-can also stack the slices to form a 3d image
-clearer than an x-ray
CT scan definition and uses:
-computerized/computed tomography
-computer pieces together several x-rays to produce image (slice) of the body
-can also stack the slices to form a 3d image
-clearer than an x-ray
each type of cell is highly specialized to:
carry out a specific function for the body
PET scan def and use
-used to tell which tissues are metabolically the most active
-reveals lymph node tumors
PET scan def and use
-used to tell which tissues are metabolically the most active
-reveals lymph node tumors
structure of a euglena is a _
generalist "Jack of all trades"
3 types of membrane extensions:
1) microvilli
2) cilia
3) flagellum
lysosomes:
small sacs of digestive enzymes that destroy pathogens and recycle worn out or inactive parts of the cell
PET scan def and use
-used to tell which tissues are metabolically the most active
-reveals lymph node tumors
lysosomes:
small sacs of digestive enzymes that destroy pathogens and recycle worn out or inactive parts of the cell
PET scan def and use
-used to tell which tissues are metabolically the most active
-reveals lymph node tumors
simple diffusion happens _ and the cell _
-automatically, freely
-the cell doesn't have to pay for it
(ATP)
simple diffusion happens _ and the cell _
-automatically, freely
-the cell doesn't have to pay for it
(ATP)
lysosomes:
small sacs of digestive enzymes that destroy pathogens and recycle worn out or inactive parts of the cell
lysosomes:
small sacs of digestive enzymes that destroy pathogens and recycle worn out or inactive parts of the cell
each type of cell is highly specialized to:
carry out a specific function for the body
structure of a euglena is a _
generalist "Jack of all trades"
simple diffusion happens _ and the cell _
-automatically, freely
-the cell doesn't have to pay for it
(ATP)
3 types of membrane extensions:
1) microvilli
2) cilia
3) flagellum
simple diffusion happens _ and the cell _
-automatically, freely
-the cell doesn't have to pay for it
(ATP)
each type of cell is highly specialized to:
carry out a specific function for the body
each type of cell is highly specialized to:
carry out a specific function for the body
each type of cell is highly specialized to:
carry out a specific function for the body
structure of a euglena is a _
generalist "Jack of all trades"
structure of a euglena is a _
generalist "Jack of all trades"
structure of a euglena is a _
generalist "Jack of all trades"
3 types of membrane extensions:
1) microvilli
2) cilia
3) flagellum
3 types of membrane extensions:
1) microvilli
2) cilia
3) flagellum
3 types of membrane extensions:
1) microvilli
2) cilia
3) flagellum
The type of cartilage growth characterized by adding new layers of cartilage to the surface is _.
oppositional growth
homeostasis definition:
the ability of the body to maintain relatively constant internal conditions (blood pressure, water balance, body temp.)
ultrasound
1)definition
2)advantage
3)disadvantage
4)used for _
1)high frequency sound waves echo back from internal organs
2)avoids dangers of radiation
3)but image isn't very clear
4)fetus, look at heart, speed up healing of a fracture
CT scan definition and uses:
-computerized/computed tomography
-computer pieces together several x-rays to produce image (slice) of the body
-can also stack the slices to form a 3d image
-clearer than an x-ray
PET scan def and use
-used to tell which tissues are metabolically the most active
-reveals lymph node tumors
lysosomes:
small sacs of digestive enzymes that destroy pathogens and recycle worn out or inactive parts of the cell
simple diffusion happens _ and the cell _
-automatically, freely
-the cell doesn't have to pay for it
(ATP)
each type of cell is highly specialized to:
carry out a specific function for the body
structure of a euglena is a _
generalist "Jack of all trades"
3 types of membrane extensions:
1) microvilli
2) cilia
3) flagellum
flagellum are located
found on sperm
cell (plasma) membrane structure (general)
1) consists or 3 major components
2)may possess membrane extensions
your blood type depends on the type of _ in your red blood cell membranes.
glycoproteins
_ are the basic units of life
cells
some organisms consist entirely of _
one cell
In contrast, our bodies are composed of _ of cells and _ of different kinds of cells.
trillions
100s
cytoplasm definition and structure:
-all the cell contents between the nucleus and cell membrane
A) cytosol
B) organelles
inside of cell is mostly
water
outside of the cell is
extracellular fluid
Major effects of insulin:
1) stimulates cells throughout the body to take up glucose faster
2)stimulates muscle and liver to convert excess glucose into glycogen for storage
Major effects of glucagon:
1) stimulate muscle and liver to convert glycogen into glucose and release it
2)stimulates liver to convert amino acids into glucose and release it
A type of junction common in cardiac and smooth muscle tissue is the:
gap junction
If a cell lacked ribosomes it wouldn't be able to _
synthesize proteins
When a sodium ion is moved across the cell membrane against its concentration gradient _ is used.
cellular ATP is used
What 3 basic components make up a nucleotide of RNA?
-Ribose
-Phosphate
-Nitrogenous bases (A U C G)
What 3 basic components make up a nucleotide of DNA?
-Deoxyribose
-Phosphate
-Nitrogenous bases (A T C G)
the study of the structure of tissue
histology
cytology
the study of cells
APT structure
consists of the nitrogenous base "A", a sugar(ribose), and 3 phosphate groups
List of organelles:
1) Mitochondria
2) Ribosomes
3) Endoplasmic Reticulum
4) Golgi Apparatus
5) Lysosomes
6) Peroxisomes