Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Serves as the chief coordinating agency for all systems
Nervous System
Detects and responds to stimuli
Nervous system
Includes the brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Made up of all of the nerves outside the CNS; includes the cranial nerves and the spinal nerves
Peripheral Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Controlled voluntarily and all its effectors are skeletal muscles
Somatic Nervous System
Involuntary division of the nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
Controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands; much of what makes up the vicera
Visceral Nervous System (autonomic nervous system)
Autonomic Nervous System
The two subdivisions of the ANS
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
The unique, highly specialized functional cells of the nervous system
Neuron fibers that conduct impulses to the cell body
Neuron fibers that conduct impulses away from the cell body
Fatty material that insulates and protects some axons
In the PNS myelin sheath is produced by these special connective tissue cells
Schwann Cells
The thin coating formed by outermost membranes of the Schwann cells
Neurons that conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain
Sensory neurons (afferent neurons)
Neurons that carry impulses out of the CNS to muscles and glands
Motor neurons (efferent neurons)
Neurons that relay information within the CNS
A bundle of fibers located within the PNS
A bundle of fibers locted within the CNS
Around an idividual fiber
Around a fascicle
Around the whole nerve
Nerves that contain both sensory and motor fibers; some cranial, all spinal
Mixed Nerves
Collectively cells that serve for support and protection
Neuroglia (glial) cells
Functions of Neuroglia
Protect nervous tissue
Support nervous tissue and bind it to other structures
Aid in repair of cells
Act as phagocytes to remove pathogens and impurities
Regulate the composition of fluids around and between cells
An eletrical charge, as on the neuron plasma membrane
Electrical charge that spreads along the membrane of a neuron
Nerve impluse
Sudden change in the electrical charge on a cell membrane, which then spreads along the membrane
Action potential
A sudden reversal of the charge on a cell membrane
A sudden return to the original charge on a cell membrane following depolarization
The point of junction for transmitting the nerve impluse
Transmission of an impulse occurs from the axon of the ____ cell to the dendrite of the ____ cell
Tiny gap between synaptic cells
Synaptic gap
Chemical released from the ending of an axon that enables a nerve inpulse to cross a synapse
Site that are ready to pick up and respond to specific neurotransmitters
Main neurotransmitters
Epinephrine (adrenaline)
Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
The neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Neurotransmitters all function in this system
THe link between the peripheral nervous sytem and the brain
Spinal cord
Coordinates impulses within the CNS
Spinal cord
Bridge of gray matter that connects the right and left horns
Gray Commisure
Small channel in the center of the gray commisure
Central canal
Column of gray matter that extends up and down the spinal cord dorsally, one on each side
Dorsal horns
Column of gray matter that extends up and down the spinal cord ventrally, one on each side
Ventral horns
Narrow groove that divides the right and left portions of the posterior white matter
Posterior Median sulcus
Deeper groove that separates the right and left portions of the anterior white matter
Anterior Median Fissure
A complete pathway through the nervous system from stimulus to reponse
Reflex Arc
The end of a dendrite or some specialized receptor cell, as in a special sense organ, that detects stimulus
A cell that transmits impulses toward the CNS
Sensory neuron (afferent neuron)
Where impulses are coordinated and a reponse is organized
Central Nervous System (CNS)
A cell that carries impulses away from the CNS
Motor Neuron (efferent neuron)
A muscle or a gland outside the CNS that carries out a response
A rapid, uncomplicated, and automatic response involving very few neurons
Simple reflex
A simple reflex arc that passes through the spinal cord alone and does not involve the brain
Spinal reflex
Reflex in which a muscle is stretched and responds by contracting; spinal reflex
Stretch reflex
Disease in which the myelin sheath around the axons is damaged and the neuron fibers themselves degenerate
Multiple sclerosis
Disorder of the nervous system in which motor neurons are destroyed
Amyothrophic lateral sclersos
A viral desease of the nervous system that occurs most commonly in children
Polio vaccines
Salk vacine developed in 1954
Sabin oral vaccine
Different degrees of sensation loss
Paralysis of one limb
Paralysis of both upper or both lower limbs
Paralysis of both lower limbs
Paralysis of one side of the body
Paralysis of all four limbs
Tetraplegia (quadraplegia)
Number of paired spinal nerves
Nerves are attached to the spinal cord by these two roots
Dorsal and ventral
Marked swelling of gray matter on the dorsal root
Dorsal root ganglion
Any collection of nerve cell bodies located outside the CNS
Large anterior branches of the spinal nerves interlace to for these networks
Supplies motor impulses to the muscles of the neck and recieves sensory impulses from the neck and the back of the head
Cervical plexus
Sends numerous branches to the shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist, and hand
Brachial plexus
Supplies nerves to the pelvis and legs
Lumbosacral plexus
The largest branch in the lumbosacral plexus
Sciatic nerve
A region of the skin supplied by a single spinal nerve
The degeneration of nerves supplying the distal areas of the extremeties
Peripheral neuritis
A form of peripheral neuritis characterized by its branches
Characterized by numerous blisters along the course of certain nerves, most commonly the intercostal nerves, which are branches of the thoracic spinal nerves in the waist area
Herpes zoster (shingles)
A polyneuropathy; a disorder involving many nerves
Guillain-Barre syndrome
Two cordlike strands of ganglia that extend along either side of the spinal column from the lower neck to the upper abdominal region
Sympathetic chains
Collateral ganglia which sends fibers mainly to the digestive organs
Celiac ganglion
Collateral ganglia which sends fibers to the large and smell intestines
Superior mesenteric ganglion
Collateral ganglia which sined fibers to the distal large intestine and organs of the urinary and reproductive systems
Inferior mesenteric ganglion
"Activated by adrenaline"