Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Imflammation of the liver.
The hydrolysis of glycogen, releasing a glucose.
An excess of glucose in the blood.
Hypothalamic Thermostat
A neutronal pool in the hypothalamus that monitors body temperature and sends afferent signals to hypothalamic heat-promoting or heat-losing centers to maintain thermal homeostasis.
Amino Group
A functional group with the formula -NH2, found in amino acids and some other organic molecules.
Removal of an amino group from an organic molecule; a step in the catabolism of amino acids.
A deficiency of glucose in the blood.
Glucose-sparing effect
An effect of fats or other energy substrates in which they are used as fuel by most cells, so that those cells do not consume glucose; this makes more glucose available to cells such as neurons that cannot use alternative energy substrates.
Sex drive.
A hydrophobic organic compound composed mainly of carbon and a high ratio of hydrogen to oxygen; includes fatty acids, fats, phospholipids, steroids, and prostaglandins.
A protein-coated lipid droplet in the blood plasma or lymph, serving as a means of lipid transport; i.e., chylomicrons and the high- and low-density lipoproteins.
Metabolic Rate
The overall rate of the body's metabolic reactions at any given time, determining the rates of nutrient and oxygen consumption; often measured from the rate of oxygen consumption of heat production. Compare basal metabolic rate.
Excessively high core body temperature, as in heatstroke or fever.
Pyruvic Acid
The three-carbon end product of glycolysis; occurs at the branch point between glycolysis, anaerobic fermentation, and aerobic respiration and is thus an important metabolic intermediate linking these pathways to each other.
A chemical reaction in which one or more electrons are removed from a molecule, lowering its free energy content; opposite of reduction and always linked to a reduction reaction.
The amount of thermal energy that will raise the temperature of 1 G of water by 1 degree Celcius. Also called a small calorie.
A degenerative liver disease characterized by replacement of functional parenchyma with fibrous and adipose tissue; causes include alcohol, other poisons, and viral and bacterial inflammation.
Ultraviolet Radiation
Invisible, ionizing electromagnetic radiation with shorter wavelength and higher energy than violet light; causes skin cancer and photoaging of the skin but is required in moderate amounts for the synthesis of Vitamin D.
The synthesis of glycogen.
The amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celcius; 1,000 calories. Also called a calorie or large calorie.
The production of heat, for example, by shivering or by the action of thyroid hormones.
Homeostatic regulation of the body temperature within a narrow range by adjustments of heat-promoting and heat-losing mechanisms.
A two-carbon carboxylic acid; the ionized for of acetic acid (CH3COO-) The monomer of fatty acids and the intermediate of aerobic metabolism that enters the citric acid cycle.
Basal Metabolic Rate
The rate of energy consumption of a person who is awake, relaxed, at a comfortable temperature, and who has not eaten for 12 to 14 hours; usually expressed as kilocalories per square meter of body surface area per hour.
Enzymes on the mitochondrial cristae that transfer electrons in the final reaction chain of aerobic respiration.
The synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrates such as fats and amino acids.
Anaerobic Fermentation
A reduction reaction independent of oxygen that converts pyruvic acid to lactic acid and enables glycolysis to continue under anaerobic conditions.
Citric Acid Cycle
A cyclic reaction series involving several carboxylic acids in the mitochondrial matrix; oxidizes acetyl groups to carbon dioxide while reducing NAD+ to NADH and FADH to FADH2, making these reduced coenzymes available for ATP Synthesis Also called the Krebs Cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle.
Aerobic Respiration
Oxidation of organic compounds in a reaction series that requires oxygen and produces ATP
A small organic molecule, usually derived from a vitamin, that is needed to make an enzyme catalytically active; acts by accepting electrons from an enzymatic reaction and transferring them to a different reaction chain.