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138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anatomy
the study of the structure (morphology) of body parts
physiology
the study of the function of body parts
atom
the smallest particle of an element
molecule
a particle composed of 2 or more joined atoms
macromolecule
a large molecule; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
organelles
a small organ of a cell, which perfoms a particular function
cells
the basic unit of life
tissues
a group of similar cells that perfoms a specialized function
organs
a group of tissues that performs a specialized function
organ system
a group of organs that act together to carry on a specialized function (11)
organism
the most complex level of organization; an individual living thing
ten processes of the characteristics of life
movement, responsiveness, growth, reproduction, respiration, digestion, absorption, circulation, assimilation (opposite of digestion), exretion
requirements of organisms
water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure
homeostasis
the tendency of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment
three components in homeostatic mechanisms
receptor, control center, effector
positive feedback mechanisms
uterine contractions, milk production, blood clotting
two portions of the human body
axial, appendicular
axial portion of the body
head, neck, trunk
appendicular portion of the body
upper and lower extremities
major cavities of the body
dorsal, ventral
cavities in the dorsal cavity
cranial cavity, vertebral canal
cranial cavity includes...
brain
vertebral canal includes...
spinal cord, vertebrae
cavities in the ventral cavity
thoracic cavity, abdominopelvic cavity
thoracic cavity includes...
lungs, mediastinum, thymus, heart, esophagus, trachea
diaphragm
muscle that separates the thoracic from abdominopelvic cavities
cavities in the abdominopelvic cavity
abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity
abdominal cavity includes...
stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder, small intestine, large intestine
pelvic cavity includes...
urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs
retroperitoneal
behind the abdominopelvic cavity
membrane
soft, thin, pliable layer of tissue that either covers a vital organ or lines a body cavity
viceral membrane
covers a vital organ
parietal membrane
lines a body cavity
serous fluid
fluid secreted for lubrication in the space between a visceral and parietal membrane
pleura
serous membranes of the lungs
space between pleura
pleural cavity
pericardium
serous membranes of the heart
space between the pericarium
pericardial cavity
peritoneum
serous membranes of the abdominopelvic cavity
space between the peritoneum
peritoneal cavity
system name for body covering
integumentary system
organs in the integumentary system
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
functions of the integumentary system
protect underlying tissues, help regulate body temperature, house a variety of sensory receptors, synthesize certain products
systems for support and movement
skeletal, muscular
organs of the skeletal system
bones, cartilage, ligaments
functions of the skeletal system
provide framework, protective sheilds for softer tissues, attachments for muscles, act with muscles for movement
organs of the muscular system
muscles
functions of the muscular system
contract and pull to provide the forces that cause movement, help maintain body temperature, primary source of heat
systems for integration and coordination
nervous, endocrine
organs of the nervous system
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs
functions of nervous system
use electrochemical signals to communicate with one another and with muscles and glands
organs of endocrine system
adrenal glands, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, thymus
functions of endocrine system
secrete chemical messengers called hormones
systems for transport
cardiovascular, lymphatic
organs of cardiovascular system
heart, arteries, capillaries, veins, blood
functions of cardiovascular system
transports gases, nutrients, hormones, and wastes
organs of lymphatic system
lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus gland, spleen
functions of lymphatic system
carries extracellular fluid back to bloodstream and fatty substances away from digestive organs
systems of absorption and secretion
respiratory, urinary, digestive
organs of respiratory system
nasal cavity, bronchi, pharynx, larynx, lungs, trachea
functions of respiratory system
take air in and out; exchange gases between blood and air
organs of urinary system
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
functions of urinary system
remove waste from blood; assist in water and electrolyte balance; store urine and transport it outside
organs of digestive system
mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intesine, large intestine
functions of digestive system
receive foods; breakdown food molecules that can be passed through cell membranes and absorbed into internal environment
systems of reproduction
reproductive; male and female
organs of male reproductive system
scrotum, testes, epididymidus, vas deferens, bulbourethral glands, urethra, penis
functions of male reproductive system
produce and maintain male sex characteristics
organs of female reproductive system
ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva
functions of female reproductive system
produce and maintain female sex characteristics; recieve male sex cells; transport female sex cells within the female reproductive system; supports development of embryos; functions in the birth process
anatomical terminology
language used to describe the relative position of body parts
anatomical position
standing erect, face forward, upper limbs at sides, palms forward
superior
above
inferior
below
anterior
front
posterior
back
ventral
front
dorsal
back
medial
center
lateral
side
ipsilateral
same side
contralateral
opposite side
proximal
closer to the trunk
distal
farther from the trunk
superficial
surface
deep
internal
sagittal
divides the body into right and left portions
midsagittal
divides the body into equal right and left portions
transverse
divides the body into superior and inferior portions
coronal
divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
cross-section
cut at 90 degrees to long axis of the object
oblique section
cut at an angle across and object
longitudinal section
cut lenghtwise along an object
9 regions of the abdominal area (top right to bottom left)
rt hypochondriac, epigastric, lt hypochondriac, rt lumbar, umbilical, lt lumbar, rt iliac, hypogastric, lt iliac
4 quadrants of the abdominal area
rt upper quad, lt upper quad, rt lower quad, lt lower quad
abdominal
region between the thorax and pelvix
acromial
point of the shoulder
antebrachial
forearm
antecubital
space in front of the elbow
axillary
armpit
brachial
arm
buccal
cheek
carpal
wrist
celiac
abdomen
cephalic
head
cervical
neck
costal
ribs
coxal
hip
crural
leg
cubital
elbow
digital
finger
dorsum
back
femoral
thigh
frontal
forehead
genital
reproductive organs
gluteal
buttocks
inguinal
depressed area of the abdominal wall near the thigh (groin)
lumbar
region of the lower back between the ribs and the pelvis (loin)
mammary
breast
mental
chin
nasal
nose
occipital
lower posterior region of the head
oral
mouth
orbital
eye cavity
otic
ear
palmar
palm of the hand
patellar
front of the knee
pectoral
chest
pedal
foot
pelvic
pelvis
perineal
region between the anus and the external reproductive organs (perineum)
plantar
sole of the foot
popliteal
area behind the knee
sacral
posterior region between the hipbones
sternal
middle of the thorax, anteriorly
tarsal
instep of the foot
umbilical
navel
vertebral
spinal column