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215 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In what order does light pass through ocular structures on its way to the retena?
Cornea, pupil, lens

Passing posteriorly from the corneal surface, light passes through these structures.
The valve that prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle at the end of ventricular systole is the:
Pulmonary (it is the right ventricular outflow valve)
Damage to which nerve, most commonly affected by dystocias, results in the inability to adduct the rear legs in the cow?
Which vessel contains valves?
Medium-sized veins
The 2nd heart sound is produced by:
Closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves.

The 1st heart sound is produced by closure of the 2 artioventricular valves.
The periodic elimination of excess gas from the ruminant forestomach is termed?
Eructation (the gas resulting from microbial fermentation in a ruminant must be periodically eliminated to prevent ruminal tympany (bloat)
Functions of long bones include all of the following except:
provide support
absorbing concussion
aiding in locomotion
acting as levers
Absorbing concussion (it is a function of short bones)
Complex reflexes are mediated through certain centers in the brain. The medulla oblongata contains reflex centers for all of the following except:
Heart contractions
Knee jerk
Knee jerk
Birds recognize feed primarily by:
What is another name for fallopian tubes?
oviducts (or uterine tubes)
Which type of joint in the frontlimb has no connection with the bony thorax?
Syndesmoid (ligamentous; a form of fibrous joint in which opposing surfaces thta are relatively far apart are united by ligaments)
What is normally the most plentiful chemical buffer in the body?
Hemoglobin (although sodium bicarbonate is the CHIEF chemical buffer in the body)
What is the point of insertion for the four heads of the quadriceps femoris?
Tibia (The tibial tuberosity specifically)
What abdominal muscle layer is the most superficial
External oblique
The least movable of the attachments of a muscle is the:
Orgin (the most movable is the insertion)
Nerve fibers encased in a white sheath of fatty material are termed?
What species has a lobulated kidney?
What is the point at which the axon of one neuron meets the dendrite of another and over which nerve impulses can pass?
Synapse (it is a gap between one nerve cell's axon and another's dendrites, across which the nerve impulse must be conducted)
Which of the following is an example of a saddle joint?
1)Distal interphalangeal in a dog
2)Scapulohumeral in a horse 3)atlantoaxial in a cow
4)Metacarpophalangeal in an elephant
Distal interphalangeal in a dog (def. saddle joint: a biaxial joint where the double motion is effected by the opposition of 2 surfaces, each of which is concave in 1 direction and convex in the other. EX: thumb)
In the first stage of parturition, ACTH stimulates the fetal adrenal cortex to release:
Hydrocortisone (fetal hydrocortisone crosses the placental barrier to stimulate uterine contractions that signal the onset of labor)
Which word describes the action of a muscle that moves toward the midline?
For which blood cell is phagocytosis the main function?
Monocyte (it is a macrophage and is important in the porcess of inflammation)
The mitral valve prevnets blood from flowing back into the?
Left atrium
The mitral valve is also known as the left atriovnetricular valve.
What is photoperiod?
Length of daylight and darkness (this regulates the heat cycle in some species)
The portion of the retina that is not sensitive to light stimuli is called the:
Blind spot (the location at which the optic nerve enters the eye and spreads to make up the retina. There are no light receptors at this point)
Which is not a common cause of enlarged mammary glands in horses?
Periparturient udder edema
Tuberculosis (it is the least common cause of enlarged mammary glands in horses)
Which of the following is not a result of sympathetic nervous system stimulation?
1)Decreased blood pressure
2)increased heart rate
3)increased activity of respiratory bronciole dilator reflex
4)Decreased gut motility
Decreased blood pressure
In ruminants, the cotyledon of the placenta attaches to what structure on the uterus to form the placentome?
Caruncle (def: a fleshy, naked outgrowth)
What structure is not part of the upper respiratory tract?
Bronchioles (they are part of the lower respiratory system)
What structure lies between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules?
Henle's loop (AKA nephronic loop)
Which nerve (one of the longest in the body) supplies parasympathetic fibers to the heart and lungs and to nearly all the abdominal viscera?
In cows, the "milk vein" is the:
Subcutaneous abdominal vein
Tendons that are flat and usually attach to flat muscles are know as:
Fasciae are flat sheets of tendons.

Diarthroses, arthroses and spheroses refer to joints.
What is the main hormonal influence during proestrus?
FSH (it targets the ovary to bring about the growth and maturity of the follicles, which, in turn, secrete estrogen to stimulate the onset of estrus)
Which substance is required for production of thyroid hormones?
The sweat glands are:
compound alveolar
compound tubular
simple alveolar
simple tubular
simple tubular (even though they are long and coiled)
What hormone increases the permeability of renal tubular cells to water?
ADH (thus increasing H2O resorption)
The largest gland in the normal animal body is:
The arrector pili muscles are attached to:
Guard hairs
(Def. arrector: a muscle that makes a body part erect)
Injury to which nerve results in knuckling of the forepaw onto its dorsal aspect?
What cell component is primarily responsible for energy supply for various cell processes?
The wall of the hoof grows distally from the:
Coronary band
Which cranial verve provides parasympathetic innervation to the cranial 3/4 of the body?
Vagus (X)
The vagus provides parasympathetic innervation to the heart, lungs, and most of the abdominal viscera
Which statement concerning the dermis is most accurate?
1)It contains blood vessels
2)Its deepest layer contains pigment cells
3)it is conposed of stratified squamous epithelium
4)its surface is keratinized
It contains blood vessels

the other 3 answers are true of the epidermis
Colostrum provides what type of immunity?
When one hormone increases the activity of another hormone, the effect is termed:
potentiation or synergism (the term used to describe the increased effect)
Which of the following is an ellipsoid joint?
(Def. ellipsoid joint: a motified biaxial ball-and-socket joint in which the other joint surfaces are elongated. AKA condylar joint)
The common passageway for the respiratory and digestive systems is the:
The longest porton of the large intestine?
The foramen ovale in the developing fetus allows blood to flow where?
from the right atrium to the left atrium (pressure in the right atrium is highter than in the left atrium, resulting in right-to-left blood flow)
The adrenal medulla secretes what 2 substances?
epinephrine and norepinephrine (hense their name: adrenergics)
The first cardiac chamber that blood enters after returning from the lungs is the?
left atrium
The inner lining of the digestive tube is called the:
The mineral most important for normal contraction of striated muscle fibers is:
Calcium (it is involved in the breakage and recoupling of cross linkages between myofilimants in a striated muscle fiber)
When Na+ is rushing into a nerve cell, the cell is unable to produce another action potential regardless of how stron a stimulus is applied. This time is called the:
Absolute refractory period
The sites in the lungs where gases are exchanges between the air and the blood are the:
Nerve processes that conduct impulses toward the cell bodies are referred to as:
Which female is an induced or reflex ovulator?
Queen (ovulation is stimulated by coitus in the cat)
Which joint type can, through simple sliding motion, move in one (uniaxial) direction only?
Which structure, whose Latin name means "little brain", is located at the caudal part of the brain and contains over half of the brain's nerves?
Which term describes movement of a part away from the median plane or a digit away from the axis of the limb?
When is the usual breeding season for ewes?
Fall; most are polyestrus only in the fall, so they will give birth in the spring
The aortic valve prevents blood from flowing back into the:
left ventricle
What does the term multiparous mean?
Having given birth to viable offspring in more that 1 gestateion (a female that has given birth after more than 1 pregnancy)
What are the effects of parasympathetic nervous system stimulation on the heart?
Decreased rate and decreased force of contractions
(the general effect of the parasympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system is to depress cardiac function)
Outside the brain and spinal cord, nerve cells are usually found in clumps or aggregations called:
The large lymphoid organ that stores blood but is not essential to life is the:
What substance is a catecholamine?
Norepinephrine (and epinephrine)
The ileum, ischium, and pubis have bodies that meet to form the:
What are exocrine glands?
Glands whose secretory products are transported via ducts. EX: Salivary and sweat glands
The terminal part of the spinal cord is called?
cauda equina
List the respiratory structures in the order through which air passes during exhalation
nasal passages
What feature is unique to cardiac muscle?
Purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibers in the heart are located in the:
left and right ventricular walls
(The Purkinje fibers conduct impulses from the bundle of His to the walls of the ventricles)
What is the normal average gestation period of guiney pigs?
pregnancy lasts 63 days
The most rostral teeth in the dental arcade are the:
(def. rostral: toward the front)
What is the scientific term for emptying of the bladder?
When a horse is standing on firm ground, the only portion of its hoof that normally contacts the ground is the:
The right atrium receives blood from what blood vessel?
Vena cava; it returns blood to the heart from the systemic circulation
In which animal is microbial fermentation most important in the digestive process?
horses; microbial fermentation is most important in digestion by herbivorous animals
In what order does light pass through ocular structures on its way to the retina (3)?
Cornea, pupil, lens (passing posteriorly)
Which fluid contributes least to the process of digestion?
pancreatic juice
stomach gland secretion
Which blood cell normally has a single large nucleus that occupies most of the cell and is important in immunity production?
The valve that prevents blood from flowin gback into the right ventricle at the end of ventricular systole?
The axial skeleton includes all of the following except:
Veterbral column
(def. axial skeleton: the bones of the head and trunk, excluding the pectoral and pelvic gridles)
ACTH stands for:
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
The teeth that arenot present in all common domestic animals are the:
How many mammae do horses have?
2 mammary glands
Cranial nerves are unique in that some are responsible for performing multiple functions. Which cranial nerve has multiple functions?
The heart chamber that pumps blood to the lungs?
right ventricle
The nucleus is an essential component of all body cells except for:
mature red blood cells
(a red blood cell loses its nucleus as it matures)
The cranial cheek teeth are the:
What is the chief action of the biceps brachium?
flexion of the elbow
Which vessel normally carries carbon dioxide-rich blood?
Vena cava
In cows, when does production of colostrum begin?
during the last 2-3 weeks of gestation
The circulatory system is lined by what kind of epithelium?
simple squamous epithelium; forms the very smooth endothelium that lines the entire circulatory system
Name the layers of the meninges from outer to inner
dura mater
pia mater
Chordae tendineae are present on which valve?
Bi- and tricuspid valves (the atrioventricular valves)
What is a seperate cranial bone of horses and cats but in other species is present only in the fetus and fuses with surrounding bones before birth?
Interparietal bone
Parasympathetic stimulation is distributed to visceral structures by which 4 cranial nerves?
Functions of flat bones include all of the following except:
1)protecting the brain
2)provide large areas for muscle attachment
3)shield the heart and lungs
4)reduce friction
reduce friction
What is the main hormonal influence during proestrus?
Which of the following gives bones rigidity and makes them more opaque on x-rays?
Granular white cells
Inorganic salts
Inorganic salts
The portion of a hair beneath the skin surface is called the:
Which cranial nerve carries impulses from the ear to the brain?
Acoustic (VIII)
The sebaceous glands of the skin are:
compound alveolar
compound tubular
simple alveolar
simple tubular
simple alveolar

Sebaceous glands are simple sac-like (alveolar) structures
Which of the following is not a normal function of the liver in an adult animal?
bile secretion
blood cell formation
destroy old red blood cells
protien synthesis
blood cell formation
What is the pigmented sphincter-like structure of the eye that controls the amount of light entering the posterior eye?
Iris (pigmented structure surrounding the pupil)
The portal vein carries nutrient-righ blood from the intestines to the:
How many pairs of cranial nerves do dogs have?
The plasma membrane of the neuron in the resting state electrically polorized) is very permeable to K+ but is almost impermeable to:
Where is the ovum fertilized?
Which vessel brings freshly O2 blood from the placenta to a developing fetus?
Umbilical vein
Urine cannot be expelled from the bladder without relaxation of the:
external sphincter
Which statement concerning the skin is least accurate and why?
1)it is involved in synthesis of vit. D
2)it is the largest organ in the body
3)its underlayer (dermis) consists of epithelial and connective tissues
4)the epidermis is its more superficial layer
3)its unerlayer (dermis)consists of epithelia and connective tissues

Correct: the dermis consists only of connective tissue
What is the cutaneous sac containing the testes?
Which of the following is not a function of teh integument?
secretion and excretion
synthesis of vit. E
temp. regulation
Synthesis of vit. E

Vit. E is not synthesized by the skin
The function of Purkinje fibers is:
to transmit the signal for ventricular contractions
The most distal part of the digestice tract and most of the urogenital system are supplied with fibers from which portion of the parasympathetic nervous system?
(sacral, cervical, thoracic, or lumbar)
The process or structure in a newborn ruminant animal that allows milk to ypass the rumen and reticulum and go directly to the omasum is:
the esophageal groove;
Newborn ruminants are functionally simple-stomached animals. Until their forestomachs become active at weaning, the esophageal groove prevents milk from fermenting in the forestomach compartments.
The number of teats on the mammary glands of different animals varies. List the correct # of teats for a rat.
The right atrioventricular valve is the:
During what part of the estrous cycle is the female most receptive to the male?
estrus (AKA heat)
If an animal is unable to control its fall and cannot right itself, which spinal tract is most likely affected?
Lateral white columns
Of the 12 cranial nerves, which is a motor nerve to muscles in the shoulder and neck?
Which of the following is not a feature of the right side of the heart?
Chordae tendineae
pulmonary valve
mitral valve
mitral valve (it is the left atrioventricular valve)
Muscles that tend to pull a limb toward the median place are termed:
The ventral corticospinal tract connects the motor area of the cerebral cortex with motor cells in the ventral gray horns on the same and opposite sides of the spinal cord. The impulses are associated with?
Voluntary motor activity
An electrical charge moving along the membrane of a nerve fiber is called?
an impulse
What emzyme inactivates acetylcholine?
What is produced by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans?
What is produced by the alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans?
Glucagon (which has the opposite effect of insulin)
Where are the ovaries located?
Near/adjacent to the kidneys
What 2 hormones have the greatest influence on the kidneys?
aldosterone and ADH
what body fluid cannot clot?
During, or shortly after, which stage of the estrous cycle does ovulation occur?
What is the most proximal, short portion of the small intestine?
The transfer of O2 and CO2 between the air and blood in the lungs is accomplished by:
diffusion; the gases difuse from than area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
The short, irregular tubular structure in the neck region that acts as a valve to control air flow to the lungs is the:
Sperm can be fertile for up to how many hours in the reproductive tract of a ewe?
48 hours
The main component of the tunical media of muscular arteries is:
smooth muscle fibers
What are the 3 major subdivisions of the brain?
cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum
What kind of epithelium lines the alveoli?
simple squamous
What hormone is secreted by the kidneys?
How often does estrus occur in normal, nonpregnant cows?
avg. estrous cycle is 19-23 days
Most absorption in the kidneys is:
by diapedesis
the lining epithelium of blood vessles is called:
Enlargement of which structure is responsible for prolonged retention of the penis within the vagina during coitus (copulation) in canines?
bulbus glandis
The smallest ruminant forestomach, and the one most commonly involved in hardware disease, is the:
What is the term for reflex emptying of the epididymis, urethra, and accessory sex glands
Homeostasis or homeokinesis is the chief role of what part of the nervous system?
autonomic nervous system
The epithelium lining the upper respiratory tract?
Pseudostratified columnar
The epithelium is:
stratified squamous, keratinized
(keritinized epithelium makes up the dry skin surface)
What is the literal definition of corpus lutium (CL)?
yellow body
The least movable of the attachments of a muscle to bone is the:
Hypoadrenocorticism is commonly referred to as:
Addison's disease
The vessel that carries blood to the nephron is the:
afferent arteriole
Which cranial nerve mediated the sense of smell?
Which female has ovaries that resemble a cluster of grapes because of the large # of protruding follicles?
cow, ewe, sow, mare
Sow (pig) because she is litter bearing
Branch-like structures that conduct impulses toward the nerve cell body are:
What structure of the fetal heart largely allows blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation?
Foramen ovale
Nerve fibers encased in a white sheath of fatty material are termed:
The cell membrane that surrounds tissue cells is made up of:
2 protien layers surrounding a lipid layer

(3 layers make up a cell membrane: a lipid layer is sandwiched between the 2 protien layers)
Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?
Acid-base regulation
mastication or chewing is a digestive system function
Within bone, blood vessels from the periosteum and endosteum communicate with those of the Haversian system via which canals?
Which nerve (the largest aeripheral nerve in the body) stimulates muscles of the theigh region
Which of the followin is not a layer of the fetal placenta?
caruncle: its a maternal structure
Arthritis may lead to an increased production of:
synovial fluid
The os penis of the dog and cat and the ossa cordis found in the heart of ruminants are examples of what kind of bones?
Splanchic bones (which develop in soft organs, remote from the rest of the skeleton)
If an animal loses its balance and develpos nystagmus, the nerve most likely to be the cause is the:
Where is the thyroid gland located?
adjacent to the trachea
What is the normal average gestation period of horses?
336 days
Average gestation period of a bitch?
63 days
Average gestation period of an ewe?
148 days
Average gestation period of a cow?
285 days
Metritis is inflammation of the:
Most synovial jointsare similar in structure and include all of the following except:
articular cartilage
joint capsule
Where is the main filtration mechanism in the kidney?
What is the primary function of the urinary system?
extraction of waste products from the blood
Raising a horse's head prevents kicking by extending the neck, which increases the tone of the extensor muscles of the forelimbs and decreases the tone of the extensors in the hind limbs. This postural reaction is referred to as:
Tonic neck reflex
List the structures in the order in which encountered by a blood cell starting from the heart (not specific)
What is the agent that aids in secretion and release of milk from the mammary gland after parturition?
The oil glands of the skin are?
sebaceous glands
What is the funnel-like strcuture of the oviduct adjacent to the ovary?
What is the correct order for the stages of the estrous cycle?
What is the relatively short period of quiescence (estrus inactivity) between estrous cycles in polyestrous animals?
Nerve fibers carrying information to the brain are termed:
Each cardiac cycle in a normal heart results from an impulse that is initiated in the:
sinoartial node
Which triangular and flat muscle originates along the dorsal midline and inserts mainly on the spine of the scapula?
The bundle of His is located in what part of the heart?
Interventricular septum
Which cranial nerve conducts motor impulses to the tongue?
Hypoglossal (XII)
The adrenal glands produce:
Compared with blood entering the alveolar capillaries, air drawn into the alveoli of the lungs has:
(Hint: compare Pco2)
Lower Pco2 and higher Pco2;
Inhaled air contains more O2 and less CO2 than does blood entering the alveolar capillaries
Hormones with masculinizing effects are known as:
The spasmodic muscluar contractions that produce heat to help maintain normal body temp are called:
Proceeding caudally, the trachea bifurcates into 2:
mainstream bronchi
The outermost layer of the digestive tube is the:
Which blood cell normally contains red-staining granules in its cytoplasm?
Extracapsular (periarticular) ligaments are those outside the joint capsule and include all of the following except:
Collerateral ligament
Dorsal Ligament
Palmar ligament
Proximal ligament
proximal ligament
How often should cows with mastitis be milked?
Which areas of bone fuse early in life but cause bones to continue to increase in size as a result of the hereditary condition known as achondroplasia?
What structure is a passageor a tube-like opening through bone?
The pancreas produces:
Which of the following is a response to increased sympathetic tone?
1) accelerated heart rate and amplitude
2)constricted bronchiles
3)dilated blood vessels in the intestinal tract
4)increased gastrointestinal secretions
1) accelerated heart rate ad amplitude

The sympathetic nervous system is used in emergency situations (fight-or-flight)
The least numerous type of blood cells is normally the:
The max amount that a muscle fiber can contract is about what proportion of its resting length?
Which hormone inhibits excessive uterine motility during gestation?
Progesterone maintains a quiescent (quiet) uterus during gestation
Where do spermatozoa mature?
The crown of teh tooth is covered by?
Which enzyme is necessary for deposition of calcium salts in osteoid tissue to form true bone?
The exocrine secretion of the pancreas contains large amounts of:
digestive enzymes
The large muscle in the calf of teh leg that flexes the stifle and extends the hock is the:
The ductus arteriosus in a fetus joins the:
aorta and pulmonary artery
In general, muscles are divided into 3 major groups according to their cellular structure. These are:
Internal respiration takes place:
throughout the body tissues