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86 Cards in this Set

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alimentary canal
digestion and excretion
mucous membrane (innermost layer of alimentary canal)
inner most layer of alimentary canal, protects tissues beneath it, secretion, absorption
submucosa (2nd innermost layer of alimentary canal)
nourishes surrounding tissues and carries away absorbed materials
muscular layer (alimentary canal)
produces movements of the alimentary canal
serous layer (outer covering alimentary canal)
protects underlying tissues, secrets serous fluids
peristalsis
propels food down esophagus
frenulum
connects tongue to floor of mouth
papillae
provide friction, which helps handle food (on tongue)
palate
forms muscular arch in mouth
uvula
aids in swallowing
lingual tonsils
rounded masses on roof of tongue, protects body from infection
palatine tonsils
either side of tongue, near palate, protects from infection
pharyngeal tonsils
posterior wall of pharynx, helps protect body from infection
permanent teeth
incisors (front), cuspid (sharp), bicuspids (premolars), molars (fat)
deciduous teeth
teeth in primary years (baby teeth), to chew food
amylase
produced by serous cells in salivary glands, splits starch and glycogen molecules into disaccharides.
mucus
produced by mucus cells in salivary glands, binds food particles and lubricates during swallowing
nasopharynx
provides passageway for air during breathing
oropharynx
passageway for food moving downward in mouth, for air moving to and from nasal cavity
laryngopharynx
passageway to esophagus
esophagus
pushes food down to the cardiac region of stomach
stomach
mixes food w/ gastric juice, initiates protein digestion
regions of stomach
fundic (temporary storage), cardiac (connects esophagus to stomach), body (secretion of gastric juices), pyloric (connects stomach to duodenum)
pyloric sphincter
controls gastric emptying, pushes food into duodenum
regurgitation
in esophagus and stomach, rids body of poisoned food
gastric glands
in mucous membrane of stomach, secretes gastric fluids
mucous cells
in gastric gland, produces mucus
chief cells
in gastric gland, produces pepsinogen
parietal cells
in gastric gland, produces hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
gastric fluid or juice
produced by gastric glands,made up of pepsin, pepsinogen, hydrochloric acid, mucus, and intrinsic factor, digestive activities in stomach
pepsin
protein-splitting enzyme that digests all types of protiens
pepsinogen
an inactive form of pepsin
intrinsic factor
in gastric juice, aids in vitamin B12 absorption
gastrin
stimulates cell growth in the mucosa of stomach
enterogastrone
lower gastrointestinal tract, opposes the forward motion of chyme when exposed to lipids
peptic ulcers
in mucous membrane of stomach, breaks down localized tissue in stomach lining
chyme
in stomach, semifluid paste of food mixed with gastric juice
peritoneum
parietal- on body wall, secretes lubricating fluid, visceral- on organ, reduces friction
peritoneal cavity
formed by serous sac of peritoneum, houses abdominal organs
omenta
greater (greater curvature of stomach, insulates; lesser (lesser curvature of stomach) insulates
mesentaries
mesentary proper, (small intestines) supports s.i.;
mesocolon (large intestine) supports l.i.
spleen
helps fight infections, removes unwanted materials from blood
gastro-splenic ligament
connects spleen to stomach
liver
excretes bile, breaks down toxic substances
caudate lobe of liver
breaks down toxic substances
falciform ligament
secures diaphragm to abdominal awll
coronary ligament
secures liver to diaphragm
hepatic ducts
drains bile from liver
hepatic lobules
functional unite of liver
hepatic sinusoids
vascular channels on liver, separate plate like groups of hepatic lobules
bile
secreted from hepatic cells, emulsify fats, help enzyme action
gall bladder
stores bile, reabsorbs water to concentrate bile
cystic space
houses gall bladder
cystic duct
transports bile from gall bladder
common bile duct
bile transportation
cholecystokin
in intestines, stimulates gall bladder to contract, decreases gastric motility
emulsification
in bile, in creases total surface area of the fatty substance
pancreas
secretes pancreatic juice
pancreatic amylase
in pancrease, carb-digesting enzyme that splits starch molecules into dissacharides
pancreatic duct
transports pancreatic juice
pancreatic lipase
in pancreas, fat-digesting enzyme that breaks triglyceride molecules into fatty acids and glycerol
trypsin and Chymotrypsis
in pancreas, protein-splitting enzyme that splits bonds between amino acids.
Zymogen granules
in pancrease, stores inactive forms of enzymes in cells
trypsinogen
in pancreas, inactive form of trypsin
secretin
in small intestine, stimulates pancreas to release pancreatic juice
enterokinase
mucosa of small intestines, activates trypsinogen into trypsin
small intestine
duodenum (recieves secretions of pancreas and liver), jejunum (" "), ileum (" ")
Aselli's pancreas
in mesentary proper, nodular mass of lymphatic tissue that recieves lymph, fights of disease
intestinal villi
inner wall of small intestines, increase surface area of intestinal lining
Intestinal enzymes(small intestines): peptidase; sucrase, maltase, lactase; intestinal lipase
splites peptides into amino acids, splits disaccharides into monosaccharides, splits fats into fatty acids and glycerol
peristaltic rush
in small intestines, rapid peristalsis
ileocecal valve
prevents food from going backwards into ileum
large intestines OR colon
ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid: (maintains water balance)
rectum
stores waste prior to excretion
cecum
beginning of colon, serves as starting point for large intestines
vermiform appendix
no known digestive functions
kidney-nephron
in kidney; unit cell of kidney
adrenal or supra-adrenal glands
secretes cortisol, adrenal androgens, and aldosterone
ureter
brings urine to urinary bladder
urinary bladder
holds urine prior to excretion
umbilical ligament
supports urinary bladder
urethra
tube where urine is discharged
cortex
blood filtration
pelvis
channels urine to ureter
papilla
helps to channel urine
medulla
controls h2o and salt in urine