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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Appendicular skeleton
-pectoral girdle
-upper limbs
-pelvic girdle
-lower limb
Pectoral girdle
-shoulder area
-clavical
-scapula
Pectoral girdle (scapula)
-attaches to clavical at the acromion
-houses glenoid cavity where humerous attaches
Upper limbs
-arms
-humerus
-radius
-ulna
-carpals
-metacarpals
-phalanges
Upper limbs (humerus)
-head fits into glenoid cavity
-upperarm
Upper limbs (radius)
-medial forearm bone
-head fits in radial notch of ulna
Upper limbs (carpals)
-slide over abd around each other to give flexibility
Upper limbs (meta carpals)
-in palm of hand
Upper limbs (phalanges)
-finger bones
Pubic girdle
-Os Coxae
-Ilium
-pubis
-Ischium
-acetabulum
Pubic girdle (Os coxae)
-fusion of 3 bones
Pubic girdle (Ilium)
-longest and most superior bone
Pubic girdle (pubis)
-middle bone
Pubic girdle (ischium)
-most inferior bone
Pubic girdle (acetabulum)
-hip joint/ socket
-joining area of 3 fused bones
-makes it stronger
Pubic girdle (male vs female)
male- inlet is skinnier and dished, acetabulum is in a medial angle
female- inlet is larger and cup-like, acetabulum is more of vertical angle.
supports pregnancy
Lower limbs
-legs
-femur
-patella
-tibia
-fibula
-tarals
-metatarsals
-phalanges
Lower limbs (femur)
-largest, longest, thickest, strongest bone in body
-femoral head fits in acetabulum
-brokmen femuoral neck usually called broken hip, usually caused by osteoporosis
Lower limbs (hip replacement)
- arthritis destroys cartilage, very painful
Lower limbs (Patella)
kneecap
Lower limbs (tibia)
-supports weight
-medial
Lower limbs (fibia)
-muscle attachment
-more internal
Lower limbs (tarsal)
-less flexible than hand, contains 1 less
-has a talus: connects to fibia and tibia to make ankle joint
Lower limbs (metatarsals)
-in sole of foot
Lower limbs (phlanges)
-toes
Lower limbs (calcanens)
-heel bone attaches to this
Lower limbs (high heel shoes)
-stretches out the muscles and tendons in the legs
-make you look good
-can damage over time
Lower limbs (arched feet)
-used as shock absorbers
-ligaments hold them
-contains elastic fibers to stretch out
Articluations
-interaction of 2 or more bones
-fibrous
-cartilagenous
-synovial
articulations (fibrous)
-collagenous fibers
-tooth to jaw
-sutures
-radius to ulna (slightly movable)
Articulations (cartilagenous)
-hyaline cartalage b/t bones
-epiphyseal plates
-pubic symphysis b/t os coxae
Articulations (synovial)
-separates articulating bones
-has synovial cavity filled with synovial fluid
-where arthritis forms
-contains bursa
Articulations (synovial bursas)
-"bags" of synovial vluid used to protect one structure from another
-protects ligaments from external impact
-protects ligaments from bone
-found in all highly movable joints
Arthitis
-Osteoarthritis
-Rheumatoid
Arthritis (osteoarthitis)
-typical bone arthritis
-knee, hip, shoulder
Arthritis (Rheumatoid)
-autoimmune disease
-immune system eats away at joints
-mostly in women
-mostly affects fingers
Skeletal muscle (function)
-generates heat
-responsible for posture
-move body-mobility
-responsible for being able to store waste materials (urin and feces)
-support abdominal and pelvic cavities
Skeletal muscle (properties)
-Excitability-muscle can be stmulated by nerves
-Contractility- muscle gets shorter
-Elasticity- when stimulus ends, muscle returns to normal length
-Extensibility- muscle can be stretched beyond relaxation point (biceps and triceps)
Skeletal muscle (muscle fibers)
-muscle cells
Skeletal muscle (sarcoplasm)
-cytoplasm
-filled w/ myofibrils
Skeletal muscle (sarcolemma)
-membrane of muscle fiber
Skeletal muscle (satellite cells)
-repair cells
Skeletal muscle (endomysium)
-loose connective tissue that wraps muscle fibers together
Skeletal muscle (myofibrils)
-contractile rods
-gets shorter when muscles contract
Skeletal muscle (fascicle)
-bundle of muscle fibers
-wrapped with dense irregular connective tissue: perimysium
Skeletal muscle (muscle)
-bundle of fascile
-wrapped with epimysium
-wrapped again with fascia
Skeletal muscle (perimysium)
-modified dense connective tissue
-provides support from all directions
-provides space for nerves and veins to enter tissue
Skeletal muscle (origin)
-where the muscle is attached to the least moveable part of the body
Skeletal muscle (insertion)
-where the muscle attaches to the most moveable part of the body
Skeletal muscle (belly)
-body of muscle
-gets fatter as it gets shorter
Skeletal muscle (epimysium)
-dense irregular modified connective tissue
-binds fasciles together
Skeletal muscle (Tranverse(T) tubules)
-distribute muscle impulses
-distrbute nutrients
-transports metabolic waste to surface
-can distribute from membrane to terminal cisternae
Skeletal muscle (sarcoplasmic reticulum)
-endoplasmic reticulum
Myofilaments (thin)
-actin
-tropoinmyosin
-troponin
Muofilaments (actin)
-2 long strands coiled around to give strength
-made of chain of actin molecule
-each molecule has an active site
Myofilaments (tropomyosin)
-2 strands coield around each other
-wraps around actin to cover active sites
Myofilaments (Troponin)
-holds tropomyosin in place
Myofilaments (thick)
-Myosin
Myofilaments (Myosin)
-2 strands per molecule
-strands twisted around each other
-heads normally 180 degrees apart