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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2. Haversian Canal
hollow tube that runs down center of osteon; contains blood vessels and nerves
3. canaliculi
– tiny canals that run through thelamellae, connecting osteocytes (bone cells)with each other and the Haversian Canals
Volkmann's Canals
horizontal channels that connect the Haversian Canals with each other
circumferential lamellae
matrix that exists between osteons and rim of bone
cancellous bone (spongy appearance)
a. latticework of bony struts
b. struts aligned along the stress lines of the bone
c. where this is found, the stress on the bone is less than where compact bone is found; this gives the bone the strength it needs with a lighter weight
Structure of Long Bones
1. diaphysis
shaft of bone; hollow cylinder; structure provides a strong structure with a moveable weight
2. medullary cavity
hollow part of diaphysis; contains yellow marrow in adult
3. epiphyses
bulbous ends of bone; consists of cancellous bone surrounded by compact bone;
– epiphyseal plate – line of cartilage that runs through epiphyses (bone growth takes place here,
lengthening the bone); bulbousness of bone
provides for more stability at joints and more
surface area for ligament and tendon attachment
4. articular cartilage
covers ends of bones; has consistency of firm rubber; acts as a protective device at joints
5. periosteum
fibrous membrane that covers the bone; some fibers penetrate the bone to anchor it; fibers of periosteum and fibers of ligaments andtendons interweave, producing a seamless juncture
Structure of Short-Flat-Irregular-Sesamoid Bones
All have cancellous bone surrounded by compact bone; in adult, some have red marrow
Bone Dynamics
Preliminary Definitions
2. Osteoclasts
1. bone forming cells (lay down matrix)
2. bone destroying cells (take matrix away)
CNS (central nervous system)
brain, spinal cord
PNS (peripheral nervous system)
functions of nervous system
1. produces consciousness
2.2. Rapid communication system responsible for sensory reception and coordination and control of body functions (detects changes in the internal and external environments, evaluates the information, and then possibly sends impulses out to the muscles and glands).
Nerve cell
Types of Neuron
a. sensory
b. motor
c. interneuron
Sensory (neuron)
transmits impulses from periphery to CNS
Motor (neron)
transmits impulses from CNS to muscle or glands
Interneuron (neron)
a relay neuron located soley within the CNS
three featrues of axon(part of a neuron)
1. rope-like structure
2. Vary from neuron to neuron in terms of length: could be a few millimeters or up to a whole meter
3. Vary from neuron to neuron in terms of diameter; larger the diameter, the faster impulses travel through the axon
a.Filaments that emanate at end of an axon
b.In motor neuron, they attach to muscles or glands
c.In sensory neuron, they attach to interneuron within CNS
1.Consists of bundles of sensory and motor axons
2.Allows for two-way communication within each nerve
(nerves) Reflex arc
fast, automatic reaction to a stimulus that takes place without thought; (touching and pulling way from a hot stove); sensory and motor impulses travel within the same nerve
(nerves) 31 spinal nerves come off of spinal cord
a. 8 cervical
b. 12 thoracic
c. 5 lumbar
d. 5 sacral
e. 1 coccygeal
sciatic nerve
i.Largest nerve in body both in terms of length and diameter
ii.Runs from hip area down whole leg
iii.Technically not a spinal nerve; emanates from sacral plexus
i.Each spinal nerve services a specific skin surface area
ii.Body is mapped out so a physician can:
1.Pinprick a skin area to erect nerve abnormalities
2.Inject an anesthetic into a specific spinal nerve to anesthesize a specific area of the body
i.Viral infection of a spinal nerve
ii.Results is red splotches on dermatome of affected spinal nerve
iii.It is a delayed reaction to chicken pox