Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where are the radius and ulna with respect to eachother?
These bones cross eachother obliquely: the proximal end of the ulna is medial and the distal end is lateral to the radius.
The proximal radius consists of what?
Head, neck and tuberosity. Head forms fovea capitus, which articulates with the capitulum part of the trochlea of the humerus.
Where is the radial tuberosity? What muscles attach in part on this tubercle?
RT=distal to the neck on the medial border of radius.
Biceps brachii and brachialis.
What is the caudal surface of the radius like?
Rough-has ligimentous attachment to the ulna.
The distal extremity of the radius is called the _______. On the lateral surface of this is the ____, and the medial surface is the ______.
Distal: Trochlea.
Lateral: Ulnar Notch.
Medial: Styloid process.
Where does the medial collateral ligament of the carpus attach (proximally)?
Proximal to the styloid process of the radius.
What is special about the cranial distal surface of the radius?
It has 3 grooves: Medial=groove for tendon of abductor pollicis longus. Middle=groove for extensor carpi radialis.
Lateral=contains tendon of common digital extensor.
The ulna articulates with the ___of the humerus by the ___ ____, and with the articular surface of the radius by the ___ ___.
Trochlear Notch.
Radial Notch.
The proximal extremity of the ulna is the ____>
The olecranon contains the ____and ____.
Olecranon Tuber, Anconeal Process.
What muscles attach to the caudal aspect of the olecranon tuber?
Triceps brachii, anconeus, tensor fasciae antebrachii.
What muscles arise from the medial surface of the olecranon tuber?
The ulnar portions of the flexor carpi ulnaris and the deep digital flexor.
What is the trochlear notch?
Smooth, vertical, half-moon-shaped concavity in the ulna that faces cranially.
What is the anconeal process?
A sharp-edged, slightly hooked process that is at the proximal end of the trochlear notch. Fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus when the elbow is extended.
At the distal end of the trochlear notch of the ulna are the ____s, which articulate with the ____and ____.
Medial and lateral coronoid processes, humerus and radius. The medial coronoid process is larger.
The ulnar tuberosity is located where?
Proximal end of ulna, distal to the medial coronoid process.
What muscles attach to the ulnar tuberosity?
Biceps brachii and brachialis insert here.
The distal end of the ulna is the ___of the ulna, with it's prominent______ ____.
Head, styloid process.
The styloid process of the ulna articulates with ____.
The ulnar and accessory carpal bones.
The carpus is used to denote where?
The part of the extremity between the antebrachium and metacarpus. (Includes soft tissue).
How many bones in the canine carpus?
Name them.
Seven. Proximal Row=3 bones (intermedioradial carpal (aka radial carpal), ulnar carpal, accessory carpal.
Distal row: first thru fourth carpal bones from medial to lateral.
In the distal row of carpal bones, how do their sizes relate?
From small to large: 1-4. #4 covers metacarpal four and five.
What regions do the metacarpal bones have?
Proxmal=base, Body=middle, Distal end is the head.
Describe the sesmoid bones in the paw.
Two each proximal to the proximal phalanges on digits II-V. One proximal to the proximal phalanx on digit 1. (called proximal sesmoids). Four small dorsal sesmoid bones (none on digit 1) embedded in the common digital extensor tendons as they pass the metacarpophalangeal joints. There is also a sesmoid in the Abductor pollicus longus.
How many phalanges, where?
Digits II=V have 3 (proximal, middle, distal), Digit I has only a proximal and distal phalanx.
How do you describe the regions of the phalanges?
Proxomal base, middle body and distal head.
Describe the characteristics of the distal phalanges.
What attaches where?
A flexor tubercle on the palmar surface-Deep digital flexor inserts here. A thin shelf of bone-the ungual crest overlaps the claw. The rounded dorsal part of the base is the extensor process-common digital extensor inserts here.
How many mammae do dogs have?
Between 8 and 12. 10 is average.
Where is a dog's skin thickest/thinnest?
Thickest: Neck-also loose.
Thin-sternum, ventral abdomen.
If a dog has 10 mammae, how are they named?
First 4=thoracic
Following 4=abdominal
Caudal 2=inguinal
Are the mammae fused ot the body wall?
No, they lie in areolar connective tissue-not fused to body wall.
Each mammae has a ____, that contains # openings.
Papilla (mostly hairless), 12
What is the costal arch formed by?
The costal cartilages of the 10th-12th ribs unite together.
Why is the 13th rib called "floating"?
It does not attach to the costal arch.
Describe areolar tissue.
Thin layer of loose, irregularly arranged connective tissue that often contains fat. Where SQ injections go.
The origin is usually the attaching part of the muscle that...... proximal; moves the least.
The insertion of a muscle can generally be described as the part that... distal; moves the most.
What is the name of the superficial muscle that twitches the skin?
Cutaneous trunci.
What innervates the cutaneous trunci muscle?
How is the muscle different in the male?
Lateral thoracic.
It develops into the preputial muscle, which radiates onto the prepuce, and pulls it back.
Beneath the cutaneus trunci muscle is a thicker one called..
the latissiumus dorsi.
What are the extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb?
Superficial pectoral
Deep pectoral
Latissimus dorsi
Serratus ventralis
What parts make up the superficial pectoral muscles?
The smaller descending pectoral is superficial to the transverse pectoral.
Superficial Pectoral Muscles.
O-first two sternebrae, and usually the 3rd, fibrous raphe between adjacent mm
I-whole crest of the greater tubercle of the humerus
A-adduct limb when not bearing weight, or prevent limb from being abducted when bearing weight.
In-Cranial pectoral nerves(C7, C8)
Deep Pectoral Muscles.
O-ventral part of the sternum and fibrous rahe; deep abdominal fascia in region of xiphoid cartilage
I-lesser tubercle; an aponeurosis to greater tubercle crest; caudal part to brachial fascia
A-when limb advanced, to pull trunk cranially and extend shoulder. When not supporting weight to draw limb caudally and flex shoulder.
Adduct limb
In-Caudal pectoral nerves (C8, T1)
What is the best developed cutaneous muscle of the neck and head?
The cleidocepalicus has two parts...what are they?
pars cervicalis, which attaches to the middle of the neck (formerly called cleidocercicalis)
pars mastoidea, attaches to the mastoid process of the skull (formerly called cleidomastoideus)
A, I
A-advance the limb; extend the shoulder, braw the head and neck to the side.
I-accessory nerve and ventral branches of the cervical spinal nerves.
O-first sternebra or manubrium
I-mastoid part of the temporal bone and nuchal crest of the occipital bone
A-draw head and neck to the side
In-accessory and ventral branches of cervical spinal nerves.
O-first costal cartilage
I-caudolateral surface of the thyroid cartlilage
A-draw larynx and tongue cuadally
In-ventral branches of cervical spinal nerves.
O-first sternebra and first costal cartilage
I-basihyoid bone
A-pull tongue and larynx caudally
In-ventral branches of spinal nerves
What is the nuchal ligament composed of?
Longitudinal yellow elastic fibers.
Where does the nuchal ligament attach/end/where does it go?
Cranially: to the caudal part of the heavy spinous process of atlas.
Then extends caudally to the tip of the spinous process of T1.
Caudal to T1 the nuchal ligament becomes the supraspinous ligament.
The yellow nature of the nuchal ligament can be traced as far caudal as T10.
Where does the supraspinous ligament start/end?
Starts at T1. (is a continuation of the nuchal ligament).
Extends to the 3rd coccygeal vertebrae.
What keeps the vertebrae from separating when the spine is flexed?
Supraspinous ligament mostly, and the interspinous ligaments.
What ligaments are associated with the vertebral bodies?
The Ventral and Dorsal longitudinal ligaments. They run dorsal and ventral to the vertebral bodies.
What is the yellow ligament?
It is a loose, thin elastic sheet located between vertebral arches. Beneath it is the epidural space, which separates the ligaments and the arches of the vertebrae from the dura covering the spinal cord.
M. anconeus:
Where does it attach?
Attaches from the distolateral humerous to the proximal/lateral ulna. (Covers the caudolateral aspect of the elbow.
Radial nerve.
Helps to keep the elbow extended while standing (high density of slow twitch mm.) Extends elbow with the triceps, tenses the antebrachial fascia.
What would happen to a dog that crushed the distal ulnar physis at 6 months of age?
Growth of the limb would be affected because the limb should have continued to grow until the dog is 12-13 months old.
Do cats have a nuchal ligament?
What ligaments are associated with the intervertebral discs?
Dorsal and ventral longitudinal ligaments, ligament of the head of each rib, and the intercapital ligaments.
Where do the intercapital ligaments span?
They extend from the head of one rib to the head of the opposite rib over the intervertebral disc and accross the floor of the vertebral canal. This is the least likely spot for a disc to rupture due to the reinforcement.
What muscle must be retracted, and is immediately dorsal to the lamina of the vertebral arches at the cranial lumbar vertebra?
Does an animal supinate or pronate to lick its front paw? (Dog)
Supinate-like eating soup : ) Pronate is outward.
What sections specifically does the duodenalcolic fold connect?
Ascending duodenum, descending colon.
An incision through the skin and superficial fasia over the ventral portion of the eleventh intercostal space would first reveal which subcutaneous skeletal mm.?
The external abdominal oblique. (extends as far cranially as the 4th rib and attaches on the ribs near the origin of the serratus ventralis mm.
What does it cover?
What covers it?
Covers the trachea, covered by the sternocephalicus caudally.
O: first sternebra and first costal cartilage.
I: basihyoid bone
A: pull tongue and larynx caudally
I: ventral branches of the cervical spinal nerves.
Where is it in relation to the cleidocephalicus cranially?
It is deep to the cleidocephalicus cranially.
Attaches at the distal end of the spine of the scapula and to the transverse wing of atlas.
I: accessory nerve
Where is the median raphe located in the neck?
Longitudinal fibrous septum between the right and left epaxial mm dorsal to the nuchal ligament.
Trapezius: how is it divided?
Cervical and thracic parts, separated by an aponeurosis.
Trapezius: OIAIn
O: median raphe of the neck and the supraspinous ligament from the level of the third cervical vertebra to the level of the ninth thoracic vertebra.
I: the spine of the scapula
A: elevate and abduct the forelimb
In: accessory n.
Rhomboideus: where is it? Divisions? OIAIn
Lies beneath the trapezius-caudal border is deep to latissimus dorsi, divided into capital, cervical and thoracic parts.
O: nuchal crest of occipital bone; median fibrous raphe of the neck, spinous processes of the first seven thoracic vertebra.
I dorsal border of the adjacent surfaces of the scapula.
A: elevate the forelimb and draw the scapula against the trunk.
In: ventral branches of the cervical and thoracic spinal nerves.
Latissiums dorsi: OIAIn
O: thoracolumbar fascia from the spinous processes of the lumbar and the last seven or eight thoracic vertebrae; muscular attachment to the last two or three ribs
I: teres major tuberosity and teres major tendon
A: dtaw the limb caudally, flex shoulder
In: thoracodorsal nerve (C7-T1)
Describe the thoracolumbar fascia.
Deep fascia of the trunk. Arises from the supraspinous ligament and the spines of the thoracic and lumbar vertebra. Covers mm of the vertebrae, ribs, and abdomen. Fuses with the opposite fascia on the ventral midline along a median fibrous raphe, the linea alba.
Serratus ventralis cervicus and serratus ventralis thoracis: OIAIn
O: transverse processes of the last five cervical vertebrae and the first seven or eight ribs ventral to their midline.
I: dorsomedial third of the scapula (serrated face)
A: support the trunk and depress the scapula.
In: ventral branches of the cervical spinal nerves and the long thoracic nerve (C7)