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140 Cards in this Set

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Muscle types
skeletol---sensory controlled/stryated

smoothe...automatic control, the digestive system

cardiac heart muscle, semi straiated, no conscious control, automatic
Isometric
tension in muscle, muscle does not shorten, no movement
does not exceed resistence
Isotonic
with movement, tension produced exceeds resistance, shortens, movement
concentric
tension in muscle, muscle shortens
Eccentric
lengthening of muslce with tension (resisting gravity)
Hypertrophy
Growth in muscle size, you do not get more muscle but the fibers get larger
Atrophy
muscle gets smaller, decrease in orgenelles that go to muscles
Prime mover/antagonist
cheif muscle responsable for a movement/wants to the oppose movement

bicep..flexes elbow...tricep extends
levers
1st teetertotter 2nd whellbaroow and 3rd class most common in body
strength
muscle at its resting length more capable of creating greater amont of fource
angle of insertion
angle muscles attaches to bone,angle in which muscle attaches to bone
Origin
more proximal/superior attachment...usually has muscle pull towards it
Trapexius
o:occiptial bone I:clavical/scapula

top/ rotates shoulder upward and elevates
middle/abducts (punches) retracts
lowe/depresses
Rhomboid
o:vertebray
I:Medial boarder scapula

retracts and downward rotation
serratus anterior
O:ribs
I:scapula

abducting (bringing arm around to front)
upward rotation
important in pushup, keeps scapula to ribcage
Levator scapulae
O:cervical spine
I:Scapula

turn neck side to side
elevates scapula,downward rotation
(adducts/abducts)
Pectoralis Minor
O:rids
I:scapula
aducts scapula around to the front (protraction picking up a suitcase).
rotates shoulders downward (depresses)
Deltoid
O:Scapula/clavical
I:deltoid tuberocity
posterior/spino..latery rotates and extends
middle/acormial..abducts
Anterior/clavial...medial rotates and flexes
Pectoralis Major
O:sternum,ribs,clavical
I:humerous
medialy rotates,adducts,PRIME flexor
Latissimus Dorsi
O:vertebray/sacrum/illiac crest
I:humerous
Prime extendor of the arm, adducts,medialy rotates
Supraspinatous
O:supraspinatous fossa
I:humerous

abducts, elevates arm
Infraspinatous
O:infraspinatous fossa
I:humerous

adducts and lateraly rotates arm (reninforces capsul)
Teres Minor
O:Lateral boarder of the scapula
I:humerous
adduct and lateraly rotate arm (reinforces)
Subscapularis
O:subscapularis fossa
I:humerous

medialy rotates arm (reinforces)
Biceps brachii
O:scapula (gleno and coracoid)
I:Radious

flexes elbow, helps to supernate through unravelling tendon
Triceps Brachii
O:long head behind shoulder other 2 on humerous
I:Ulna

extends the shoulder (long head) extends elbow, adducts
Corocobrachialis
O:scapula
I:humerous

flexes shoulder, adducts
Brachialis
O;humerous
I:ulna
PRIMARY flexes elbow
Brichioradialis
O:humerous
I:radious

flexes the elbow
Pronator Teres
O:medial epicondyle/ulna
I:radious
pronator teres
O:medial epi/ulna
I:radious

pronates
Supinator
O:Later epi/ulna
I:radious

supernates syengisticly with the biceps
Brachioradialis
O:humerous
I:styloid process of radious

flexes elbow and semipronates (handshake)
Retenaculum
band of connective tissue that keeps tendons in place. runs from medial to lateral carpral bones and inbetween and forms the carprel tunnel
Synovial Sheaths
tendons run in it, slippy thin, smoothe lubriacted.
flexor Carpri Radialis
O:med Ep
I:based of MC 2 and 3

flexes write and abducts hand
Palmaris Longus
O:med Ep
I:Felexor retinaculem

weak wrist flexor
Flexor Carpri ulnaris
O:med Ep
I:pisoform

flexes writs and adducts hand
Flexor digitorum Superficialis
O:Med Ep/ulna
I:middle phalanges 2-5

flexes wrist, flexes fingers to middle (not end) splits
Flexor Polisis longus
O:Radious
I:end of thumb

flexes wrist and thumb
Flexor Digitorum Profundes
O:ulna
I: end of phalanges 2-5
flexes fingers to end, flexes wrist
Pronator Quatras
O/I 1/4 radious 1/4 ulna

Pronates forearm
most important pronator
Extensor capri radialis longus
O:just above lat ep
I:base of metecarple 2

extends wrist, abducts hand
Extensor Carpri Radialis Brevis
O:lateral ep
I:Base MC 3

extends wrist, abducts hand
Extensor Digitorum Communis
O: Lateral Ep
I:2-5 phalanges

extend wrist/extend fingers
forms dorsal expanstion
Extensor Carpi ulnaris
O:Lat Ep
I:Base of mC 5

extends wrist, adducts hand
Extensor Polisis Longus
O:ulna
I:end of thumb

extends thumb/weak wrist extend..points thumb up
Abductor Polisis longus
O:radious/ulna
I:base MC thumb

abducts thumb
Thenar muscles
3-thumb
Hypothenar muscles
base of little finger
interossei
7 3 palmer adduct
4 dorsal abduct
lumbricals
allow you to flex knuckle with fingers straight
flxor digitorum profundes tendon
spinal extendors
run parelle to spinal colum
extend the back..allowing you to straighten out
long muscles
Diapharagm
attches to circumfrence of ribcage
domed shaped
outside muscle fiber, inside tendon
wholes:esphogus and venus return
Internal intercostal
run upward and inward
depresses ribcage in forced exhilation
external Intercostals
downward and inward
lifts ribcage for breathing
sternoclomastoid
O:mastoid
I:clavical/scapula

allows you to turn head from side to side
external abdominal oblique
ribs...illium,apnerosis

downward and inward
flexes trunk,compresses abdominal wall, (lat flex)
Ignual ligament
formed by external oblques apnersis..runs from illuim to pubis
Internal abdominal oblique
O:illum
I:ignual ligament
deep to external. upward and inward at near 90 degree angle

flexes trunk, compresses abdominal wall (lat flex)
Transverse abdominis
O:crest of illium
I:ignual ligament

deep to internal oblique, runs in a transverse direction
flexes trunk, helps you compress abdominal wall, (deffication) (lat flex)
Rectus Abdominalis
O:Sternum
I:pubis
cut into 4 by tendon
flexes trunk, same deapth as interal oblique
compresses abdominal wall
psoas major
O:vertabal collum
I:fermur (top)

flexes hip, lateraly rotates
iliacus
O:illium
I:top of femur

hip flexor, lateral rotator
Rectus Femoris
O:illium
I:patella, tibia

hip flexor, extends knee
Pectineus
O:pubis
I:femur (midtop)
flexes the hip, adducts hip
adductor longus
O:pubis
I:femur (mid)
adducts hip, felxes hip
adductor brevis
O:pubis
I:femur

adducts theigh (hip flexes)
Adductor magnus
o:pubis
I:large part of femur

anterior:flexes hip
posterior:extends and adducts
*antagonist and prime mover
Gracilis
O:pubis
I:tibia
flexes hip/adducts hip
flexes knee
Sartorious
O:illium
I:medial tibia
flexes and lateral rotates hip
flexes and medialy rotates knee
crossed legged
gluteous maximus
O:gluteal surface of illum
I:illiotibial band

Cheif extensor of hip
lateral rotator
jumping,walking up stairs
Gluteous medius
O:gluiteal surface
I:femur
medial rotator
abductor
Gluteous minimus
O:illium
I:femus
medial rotator
abductor
Lateral rotators
6 of them
saccrum to femur
turn hip outward
Hamstring: Beceps femoris
O:ischium/femus
I:Fibual
extends the theigh(long)
flexes and lateral rotates knee
Hamstring: Semimembernosis
O:Ischium
I:Tibia
extends hip
flexes and medialy rotates knee
deep to tendernosis
hamstring: Semitendernosis
O:ischium
I:tibia

Extends hip
flexes/medialy rotates knee
Popliteues
O:lateral epi Femus
I:Tibia

moves tibia medialy to unlock knee
flexes knee
screwwhole mechinism, mainting upright postion without much contraction "lock"
Gastrocnemious
O:later and Medial Condyle femur
I:calcanious (ikillies tendon)
Plantar flexes ankel
flexes knee
Plantaris
O:condye on femur
I:calcaneous

flexes knee,plantar flexes
What 4 muscles form the quadrocept group?
vastas medialis
vastas lateralis
vastas intermedialis
rectus femoris
Vastas lateralis
O:lateral side of femur
I:Patella/tibia
extends knee
Vastas medialis
O:meidal side femur
I:patella/tibia

extends knee
Vastas intermedialis
O:femur
I:tiba/patella
extends knee
tibialis anterior
O:tibia
I:1st metetarsal (big toe)
dorsal flexes/inverts
extensor digitorum longus
O:tibia and interosci
I:fans out to 2-5
extends toes
dorsiflex
Extensor hallcisis longus
O:fibual and membrane
I:end of big toe
extends bid toe
dorsiflexes
Soleous
O:fibula/tibia
I:calcaneous (ikillies)
plantar flexes
Tibialis posterior
(beind med maleolous)
O:tibia/fibula
I:navacular bone
planter flex
inverstion
Flexor digirtorum longus
(under med mal)
O:Tibia
I:fans out to 2-5 toes
flexes toes,plantar flexes
Flexor hallicus longus
(under med mal)
O:fibula/tibia
I:big toe
flexes big toe
plantar flex
important in locomotion
dont drag toes
Proneus longus
(behing lat mal)
O:fibula
I:1st metetarsal
plantar flexton
Everstion
Peroneous brevis
(behind lat mal)
O:Fibula
I:5th metarsal (lil toe)
deep to longus
Plantar flex
Everstion
Intrinsic foot muscles
group around big toe
group around little toe
interocsii muscles adduct and abduct toes
Parellel Shift
Short distance runner
flex/streach
streach/flex
low efficiany
Non parellel shift
passive insufficiency
active
1--long dis runner
flex flex
streach streach
high efficiancy

passive...streached till it cant streach anymore

active...flexed till cant flex anymore
heart
meaintain fluid balance
transportation
body temp
maintains intersitial fluid around cells with content and volume (waste and nutrients)
transports waste/o2/drugs to differnt parts of the body(insulen from pancreas to cells)
Location of the heart in thorax
Medioastinum
Heart layers...
1)periocradial sac
2)Parietal..fiberous (thick connective tissue) and Serous (thin)
3)periocardial cavity (space betwen allows for non friction)
4)Viseral periocradium (lines the heart itself)
5)Myocarium (heart muscle)
6)endocardium (lines the inside of the heart's cavities)
Openings into to right atrium
Superior vena cava ...venus blood from upper limbs
Inferior vena cava..venus blood from below the heart
Coronary sinus opening..venus blood from the heart (opens on back side of heart)
systemic system vs Palmonary
sys ...red
pulmanary.. blue
Septums
devide seperate chambers
Fossa Ovals
shallow depression in right and left atriums, reminants of fetal circulation
Right ventrical 3 parts
Tricusped Atroventrical valve (chambers)

chordenae tendinea and pappilary muslc
chordenae tendinea and pappilary muslc
strings attached on the cusps of the valvues
pappilary mucles contract to make sure the valves don't go up into the atrium
pulmanary artery
2 take blood from the heart back to lungs for gas exhange from the right ventrical
palmanary semilunar vlave
blood fron the right ventrical passes through it to the palmanary artieries
3 pockets seal blood from getting back in
interventrical septum
devides the 2 ventricals
name the parts of the (right and) left ventrical
pulmanry viens (4) from the lungs go into the left atrium
they them pass through the left bicusped atrioventrical valve (with cord ten/pap muslces) into the left ventrical where they are pushed throught the arotic semilunar valuve wich has openings to the coronary artieries...then int he acending arota
difference between left and right atrioventrial valvues
right ...3 cusps
left...2 cusps
semi lunar vlavues
pal and arota...3 pockets that seal blood from reentering the heart

in the arota 2 openings to feed blood to heart coronary artiers
coronary salcus
outisde external groove that seperates the 2 arts from the 2 vents
coronary sinus found here
anterior posterior interventrical salcus
external landmark devides left and right ventricals
coronry viens and arties here
base and apex of heart
apex..tip of heart
base...top of the heart (described at left at back around the coronary viend)
Excitability of the heart
name the parts that allow the heart to contract on its own
1) S A node found at back of the right artrum under the superior vena cava...the pace maker of the heart...allows both atriums to contract to push to ventricals
2)Av Node floor of right atrium..creates delay
3)AV bundle,,conducts pathway through septum/middle of heart down to the apex
4)Perkungi fibers...causes ventricals to contract..spead through ventrical wall
Blood vessles..name and differnce between vessle layers
tunica interna...inner lining of vessle simple squamous
tunica media..smooth muscle to push blood (thicker on arteries)
Tunica externa...attaches to structures (thicker on veins)conenctive tissue
arterioles
smallest artieries
vaso diolation
constriction
the narrowing of the loomen or expanding

constricting decreases flow to cappilaries
Cappilaries
are only made from tunica interna...single layered for fast gas exchange..accept arterioles and venules
smallest of the blood vessles
venules
smallest veins..they drain the cappilaries
valves/milking actions
viens have valvues..prevent blood from back flowing..to return to heart

when these viens pass through skeletol muscle groups those muslces contract pushing blood up the viens
anastomsis
when the veins or arteries merge at differnt points to allow differnce roots for blood to move through the body
name the artieries
pg 705
name viens
705
difference between left and right atrioventrial valvues
right ...3 cusps
left...2 cusps
semi lunar vlavues
pal and arota...3 pockets that seal blood from reentering the heart

in the arota 2 openings to feed blood to heart coronary artiers
coronary salcus
outisde external groove that seperates the 2 arts from the 2 vents
coronary sinus found here
anterior posterior interventrical salcus
external landmark devides left and right ventricals
coronry viens and arties here
base and apex of heart
apex..tip of heart
base...top of the heart (described at left at back around the coronary viend)
Excitability of the heart
name the parts that allow the heart to contract on its own
1) S A node found at back of the right artrum under the superior vena cava...the pace maker of the heart...allows both atriums to contract to push to ventricals
2)Av Node floor of right atrium..creates delay
3)AV bundle,,conducts pathway through septum/middle of heart down to the apex
4)Perkungi fibers...causes ventricals to contract..spead through ventrical wall
Blood vessles..name and differnce between vessle layers
tunica interna...inner lining of vessle simple squamous
tunica media..smooth muscle to push blood (thicker on arteries)
Tunica externa...attaches to structures (thicker on veins)conenctive tissue
arterioles
smallest artieries
vaso diolation
constriction
the narrowing of the loomen or expanding

constricting decreases flow to cappilaries
Cappilaries
are only made from tunica interna...single layered for fast gas exchange..accept arterioles and venules
smallest of the blood vessles
venules
smallest veins..they drain the cappilaries
valves/milking actions
viens have valvues..prevent blood from back flowing..to return to heart

when these viens pass through skeletol muscle groups those muslces contract pushing blood up the viens
anastomsis
when the veins or arteries merge at differnt points to allow differnce roots for blood to move through the body
name the artieries
pg 705
name viens
705