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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the purpose of the urinary system?
-to remove metabolic wastes
-to balance blood chemistry
What are part of the urinary system?
-2 kidneys
-2 ureters
-bladder
-urethra
What does adipose tissue do for the kidneys?
-anchors them to the body wall
Where are the kidneys located?
-high in the abdominal cavity (not close to the bladder)
-outside the peritenal cavity
-"retroperiteneal"
Why is the left kidney higher than the right?
-because the liver is above the right
What is the fibrous capsule of the kidneys?
-fibrous tissue made of callangenous fibers
What is the order of the parts of the kidney from external to internal?
-fibrous capsule
-cortex
-medulla
What are the pyramids of the liver?
-sections of liver separated by renal columns
What do renal columns of the kidneys do and what are they made of?
-give stability to the kidneys
-made of
How does urine travel through the urinary system?
-apex of pyramids-->to minor calyx of each pyramid-->major calyx-->renal pelvis-->ureter-->bladder for storage
How does the circulatory system travel through the kidneys?
-rneal arteries enter kidneys
-renal veins exit kidneys
-very vascular (1200ccs of blood/minute)
-nephrons surrounded by circulatory networks
What are the nephrons of kidneys?
-filtration untis of the kidneys
-suroounded by capillaries
What are the parts of the nephron?
-renal capusle (corpuscle and glomerular)
-glomerulus
-proximal convoluted tubule
-nephron loop
-distal convolute tubule
-collecting ducts
-renal papilla
What is the renal capsule?
-hollow ball that contains capillaries called glomerulus
What is the proximal convoluted tubule?
-close to capsule
-has tiwsting nad turning
Where does the papillary duct lead out to?
-to the apex of pyramid
How many nephrons do we have? Why?
-almost 2 million in each kidney
-the more you have, the more effient urination will be
-having too little will elad to kidney failure
What fluid exists in the renal capsules?
-blood and plasma
What fluid exists in the nephron tubules and collecting duct?
-filtrate
What is the fluid that exists the collecting duct?
-urine
What do nephrons do?
-filters blood
What is significant about the blood entering the renal capsules?
-mostly red
-very little oxygen is lost
How does blood enter and leave the renal capsules?
-enters by afferent arteriole
-leaves by efferent arteriole
What do the capillaries of the renal capsules contain and why?
-perforations called fenestrations
-filtration component of the kidneys
What get filtered in the kidneys?
-1/4 of all plasma
-all molecules small enough to fit through holes and leave blood into capsules
-includes proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, nucleic acids, eletrolytes, vitamins, enzymes, and water
What do pedocytes do and why?
-wrap around capillaries with pedicils
-for reinforcement without covering holes (Contains cracks for molecules to pass)
-for capillaries to withstand 40mLHG of pressure`
What lines convoluted tubules?
-simple cuboidal cells lined with microvilli
How do you get molecules back?
-filtrate goes to proximal convoluted tubule and gets reabsorbed by cuboidal cells
What happens after molecules are reabsorbed?
-nephron loop balances blood chemistry
-calcium out of filtrate if needed
-sodium out of blood if too much
-you want most waste to be filtered, not all for balance
What are the 3 sections of the ureters?
-mucosa
-muscularis
-adentitia
What is the mucosa of the ureters made of?
-transitional epithelium
What muscles are in the muscularis of the ureters? What are they used for?
-longitudinal
-circular
-peristalsis of urine movement to bladder
-contains flaps to prevent urine backup into kidneys
Why must you keep urine away from kidneys?
-waste is toxic and can damage in large quantities
What is significant about the adentitia?
-does not produce serous fluid
What does the bladder do?
-can hold a liter of urine
-can hold more during sympathetic actions
What does the lumen of the bladder consist of and why?
-rugae for expansion
What is significant about the trigone?
-no rugae
-area b/t openings of ureters and urethra
-can;t be stretched or ureters will be backed up and urethra will be blocked
What does the mucosa tunic of the bladder consist of?
-transitional epithelium
What does the submucosa tunic of the bladder consist of?
-have stretch receptors and neurons
-needs extensive vascukarity to protect bladder
What are women with short urethras prone to?
-urinary tract infection
What muscles does the bladder have and do?
-detrusor muscle (so bladder is uniformly emptied)
-internal urethal spincter (skeletal muscles for release of urine)
-external urethral spincter (smooth muscles in body wall to finish urination)
How do you wipe yourslef after you go to the bathroom?
-wipe anterior to posterior