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91 Cards in this Set

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what is the JGA
Place where afferent arteriole touches the distal convoluted tubule
all chemical reaction w/i body
provides energy balance between cat and anab
metabolism
decomposition of larger molecules to smaller ones
exergonic
produces ATP for anabolism
catabolism
synthesis of larger molecules
endergonic
requires atp
anabolism
Net reaction of cellular metabolism
C6H12O6+6O2+36ADP's+36Pi
yields
6CO2+6H20+ATP+heat
Glycolysis occurs.....
in the ..........
occurs anaerobically in the cytoplasm
pyruvic acid is
and yields
end product of glycolysis
lactic acid when no O2 present
pyruvic acid yields________with 02
Acytyl Coenzyme A
oxidation is the ___________ from a molecule
removal of electrons and H+ ions
lactic acid back to pyruvic
example of oxidation and release of ATP
reduction is the ____________ from a molecule
addition of electrolns and H+ ions
pyruvic back to lactic acid
example of reduction reaction with the addition of H+ ions to turn back to lactic
Redox reactions
are always coupled. Examples are digestive reactions with carbs, fats and protein metabolism
oxidation of food causes
body heat and large quantities of energy
hunger and satiety center located
satiety center is
hunger center is
in hypothalamus

inhibits hunger center
constantly turned on
food intake mostly regulated by
blood glucose levels
blood glucose levels act upon what center
hunger or satiety centers
fatty acids act upon
satiety center to inhibit eating
body temp
affects metabolism and eating habits
stretching of GI tract
decreases eating
CCK decreases
eating
phychological factos: anorexia etc
decrease eating
chemical substances by which we derive energy and help form body components
nutrients
glycogen stored in 2 places
skeletal muscle(80%) and liver (20%)
part of enzyme systems which catalyze metabolic reactions
minerals and vitamins
coenzymes needed in order to utilize nutrients
vitamins
acts as a solvent, in hydrolytic reactions, coolant, lube and maintain body temp
water
oxidation of glucose is also called
cell respiration
electron transport chain is in the
mitochondria of cells
oxidation of glucose is the
chief source of energy
2 ATP in glycolysis
2 ATP in Krebs
34 in electron transport chain
what 1 M glucose yields
during digestion process, glycogen is stored
in the liver
many glucose come to form glycogen is called_________ and stim'd by_______
glycogenesis; insulin
breakdown of glycogen in liver to put more sugar in blood is called_______ and stim'd by__________
glycogenolysis; glucagon
making of glucose from sources other than carbs. Making new glucose
gluconeogenesis
largest reserve of energy
produce 131M apt
lipids
digestion into amino acids to make new body proteins for growth and repair
protein metabolism
amino acids are deaminated in liver to ketoacids,glucose and fatty acids
They then enter Kreb's with CO enz. A
Metabolism regulated and controlled by
controlled by enzymes and regulated by hormones
BMR
rate at which heat is produced
exercise, nervous system, ingestion of proteins, age, gender, climate, sleep or malnourised, surface area to vol. ratio
factors affecting BMR
bowmans capsule and glomerulus
make up renal corpuscle
afferent arteriole,
bowman's capsule,
prox. conv. tub,
des loop of henle,
asc. loop of henle,
dist. conv. tub that drains into collecting duct
flow of urine through nephron
blood vessels in order through kidney
1)Renal artery
2)segmental artery
3) interlobar artery
4) arcuate artery
5) interlobular artery
5) afferent arteriole
6) glomerular capillary
7) efferent arteriole
8) peritubular capillary
9) interlobular veins
10) arcuate veins
11) interlobar veins
12)renal veins
Main fx of kidney is to_________
filter blood of toxic wastes
control blood conc and vol by removing selective amounts of water and solutes
regulates pH of blood
kidneys unit of structure is
nephron
epithelium in nephron
is simple cuboidal except for bowman's capsule(simple squamous) and loop of henle (low cuboidal)
aff. art is larger than eff. art. Why?
larger due to larger vol with higher pressure. Eff. is smaller due to less pressure and maintainance of pressure inside nephron
Glo filt contains
water and dissolved blood components in plasma
hydrostatic pressure in ________and is highest and promotes GFR due to it's high pressure
afferent arteriole
myogenic ass. with
smooth muscle stim'd by symp. nervous sys response
myogenic causes smooth muscle to
vasoconstrict afferent and efferant art. which decrease b/p and GFR
Function of JGA is to
regulate diameter of afferent arteriole and hence, renal blood pressure by detecting low Cl levels when b/p decreases
What uptake of fluid from kidney tubules is called
water reabsorption
hydrostatic pressure- capsular pressure- colloidal pressure =
net filtration pressure
In nephron, most reabsorption of substances take place in what part of nephron?
proximal conv. tubule by active transport
Facilitative reabsorption in collecting duct and distal conv.tubule affected by
ADH
principal cells in distal conv. tubule respond to
ADH and aldosterone for Na reabsorption for nerve and muscle action potential
permeability of collecting ducts regulated by
ADH
Normal daily vol of urine
1,000-1,200cc/day
direction of H20 movement of fluid compartments determined by
various osmotic pressures exerted by various ions and proteins
what area stim's desire to drink
thirst center in the hypothalamus
how ADH saves water?
by making dist. conv. tubule and collecting ducts more permeable so that the movement of H20 is reabsorbed back to blood. This keeps more H20 in the system
cation necessary for conduction of action potential and maintaining osmotic pressure
Na+
cations
anions
are positive
are negative
Primary intracellular ions are
K, phosphate and protein
In tissues, CO2 goes out and HCO3 goes out of RBC
and Cl goes in
In lungs, CO2 goes out of RBC and HCO3 goes in RBC
and Cl goes out
What weak acids,
sodium bicarb + HCL yield?
sodium chloride and carb. acid
What strong base
Carb. acid + sodium hydroxide yield?
sodium bicarb and water
Acid is a
donor of H+ ions
How H+ ions are eliminated by body?
through urine
Levels of Na in extracellular fluid regulated by what hormone
aldosterone
testosterone produce where?
in testes, near seminiferous tubules are the Leydig cells that produce it.
Why testes are in scrotum outside the body?
because spermatogenesis needs to take place in lower than body temp.
spermatogonium located
in the seminiferous tubules inside the testes
spermatogonium divides by mitosis with
4 stages and diploid # chromosomes
1 spermatogonium differentiates into primary spermatocyte (2n) to
two secondary spermatocytes(n)
This is meiosis I (reduction division)
when there are two secondary spermatocytes (n) they differentiate into
4 spermatatids(n) by Meiosis II (equatorial division)
spermiogenesis is where
spermatids develop into spermatozoa. Takes place in epididymis
Final maturation of sperm occurs in
epididymis
FSH in male does what?
initiates spermatogenesis and sertoli cells secrete inhibin to inhibit it
LH in male does what?
increases testosterone production by leydig cells
seminal vesicle adds
fructose to semen for ATP energy for sperm motility
Oocyte moves through ciliated simple cuboidal epithelium in fallopian tube by
peristalsis
epithelium of vagina is
nonkeratinized stratified squamous with mucus glands
Endometrium is the thickest during
postovulatory stage (secretory phase)
When LH at highest levels
during ovulation
when progesterone at highest level
luteal phase, secretory phase or postovulatory phase
whatever you want to call it
function of progesterone
continued development of endometrium during secretory phase
what happens to corpus luteum if fertilization doesn't occur?
it stops production of prog. and estrogen and desintegrates into a corpus albicans